18‏/03‏/2011

List of Rulers of Ancient Egypt and Nubia


Our knowledge of the succession of Egyptian kings is based on kinglists kept by the ancient Egyptians themselves. Our knowledge of the succession of Egyptian kings is based on kinglists kept by the ancient Egyptians themselves. The most famous are the Palermo Stone, which covers the period from the earliest dynasties to the middle of Dynasty 5; the Abydos Kinglist, which Seti I had carved on his temple at Abydos; and the Turin Canon, a papyrus that covers the period from the earliest dynasties to the reign of Ramesses II. The most famous are the Palermo Stone, which covers the period from the earliest dynasties to the middle of Dynasty 5; the Abydos Kinglist, which Seti I had carved on his temple at Abydos; and the Turin Canon, a papyrus that covers the period from the earliest dynasties to the reign of Ramesses II. All are incomplete or fragmentary. All are incomplete or fragmentary. We also rely on the History of Egypt written by Manetho in the third century BC A priest in the temple at Heliopolis, Manetho had access to many original sources and it was he who divided the kings into the thirty dynasties we use today. We also rely on the History of Egypt written by Manetho in the third century BC A priest in the temple at Heliopolis, Manetho had access to many original sources and it was he who divided the kings into the thirty dynasties we use today.

It is to this structure of dynasties and listed kings that we now attempt to link an absolute chronology of dates in terms of our own calendrical system. It is to this structure of dynasties and listed kings that we now attempt to link an absolute chronology of dates in terms of our own calendrical system. The process is made difficult by the fragmentary condition of the kinglists and by differences in the calendrical years used at various times. The process is made difficult by the fragmentary condition of the kinglists and by differences in the calendrical years used at various times. Some astronomical observations from the ancient Egyptians have survived, allowing us to calculate absolute dates within a margin of error. Some astronomical observations from the ancient Egyptians have survived, allowing us to calculate absolute dates within a margin of error. Synchronisms with the other civilizations of the ancient world are also of limited use. Synchronisms with the other civilizations of the ancient world are also of limited use.

Old Kingdom Old Kingdom

ca. ca. 2649–2150 BC 2649-2150 BC

Dynasty 3, ca. Dynasty 3, ca. 2649–2575 BC 2649-2575 BC
Zanakht Zanakht ca. ca. 2649–2630 BC 2649-2630 BC
Djoser Djoser ca. ca. 2630–2611 BC 2630-2611 BC
Sekhemkhet Sekhemkhet ca. ca. 2611–2605 BC 2611-2605 BC
Khaba Khaba ca. ca. 2605–2599 BC 2605-2599 BC
Huni Huni ca. ca. 2599–2575 BC 2599-2575 BC
Dynasty 4, ca. Dynasty 4, ca. 2575–2465 BC 2575-2465 BC
Snefru Snefru ca. ca. 2575–2551 BC 2575-2551 BC
Khufu Khufu ca. ca. 2551–2528 BC 2551-2528 BC
Djedefre Djedefre ca. ca. 2528–2520 BC 2528-2520 BC
Khafre 1 Khafre the first ca. ca. 2520–2494 BC 2520-2494 BC 1 1 Fragmentary face of King Khafre [Egyptian]

2 2 Seated statue of King Menkaure [Egyptian]
Nebka II Nebka II ca. ca. 2494–2490 BC 2494-2490 BC
Menkaure 2 Menkaure the second ca. ca. 2490–2472 BC 2490-2472 BC
Shepseskaf Shepseskaf ca. ca. 2472–2467 BC 2472-2467 BC
Thamphthis Thamphthis ca. ca. 2467–2465 BC 2467-2465 BC
Dynasty 5, ca. Dynasty 5, ca. 2465–2323 BC 2465-2323 BC
Userkaf Userkaf ca. ca. 2465–2458 BC 2465-2458 BC
Sahure 3 Sahure three ca. ca. 2458–2446 BC 2458-2446 BC 3 3 King Sahure and a nome god [Egyptian]
Neferirkare Neferirkare ca. ca. 2446–2438 BC 2446-2438 BC
Shepseskare Shepseskare ca. ca. 2438–2431 BC 2438-2431 BC
Neferefre Neferefre ca. ca. 2431–2420 BC 2431-2420 BC
Niuserre Niuserre ca. ca. 2420–2389 BC 2420-2389 BC
Menkauhor Menkauhor ca. ca. 2389–2381 BC 2389-2381 BC
Isesi Isesi ca. ca. 2381–2353 BC 2381-2353 BC
Unis Unis ca. ca. 2353–2323 BC 2353-2323 BC
Dynasty 6, ca. Dynasty 6, ca. 2323–2150 BC 2323-2150 BC
Teti Teti ca. ca. 2323–2291 BC 2323-2291 BC
Userkare Userkare ca. ca. 2291–2289 BC 2291-2289 BC
Pepi I Pepi I ca. ca. 2289–2255 BC 2289-2255 BC
Merenre I Merenre I ca. ca. 2255–2246 BC 2255-2246 BC
Pepi II Pepi II ca. ca. 2246–2152 BC 2246-2152 BC
Merenre II Merenre II ca. ca. 2152–2152 BC 2152-2152 BC
Netjerkare Siptah Netjerkare Siptah ca. ca. 2152–2150 BC 2152-2150 BC

First Intermediate Period First Intermediate Period

ca. ca. 2150–2030 BC 2150-2030 BC

Dynasty 8–Dynasty 10, ca. Dynasty 8-Dynasty 10, ca. 2150–2030 BC 2150-2030 BC
Dynasty 11, first half, ca. Dynasty 11, first half, ca. 2124–2030 BC 2124-2030 BC
Mentuhotep I Mentuhotep I ca. ca. 2124–2120 BC 2124-2120 BC
Intef I Intef I ca. ca. 2120–2108 BC 2120-2108 BC
Intef II 4 Intef II four ca. ca. 2108–2059 BC 2108-2059 BC 4 4 Stele of King Intef II [Egyptian]

5 5 Relief of Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II (detail) [Egyptian]
Intef III Intef III ca. ca. 2059–2051 BC 2059-2051 BC
Mentuhotep II 5 Mentuhotep II the fifth ca. ca. 2051–2030 BC 2051-2030 BC

Middle Kingdom Middle Kingdom

ca. ca. 2030–1640 BC 2030-1640 BC

Dynasty 11, second half, ca. Dynasty 11, second half, ca. 2030–1981 BC 2030-1981 BC
Mentuhotep II (cont.) Mentuhotep II (cont.) ca. ca. 2030–2000 BC 2030-2000 BC
Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep III ca. ca. 2000–1988 BC 2000-1988 BC
Qakare Intef Qakare Intef ca. ca. 1985 BC 1985 BC
Sekhentibre Sekhentibre ca. ca. 1985 BC 1985 BC
Menekhkare Menekhkare ca. ca. 1985 BC 1985 BC
Mentuhotep IV Mentuhotep IV ca. ca. 1988–1981 BC 1988-1981 BC
Dynasty 12, ca. Dynasty 12, ca. 1981–1802 BC 1981-1802 BC
Amenemhat I 6 Amenemhat I 6 ca. ca. 1981–1952 BC 1981-1952 BC 6 6 Relief of King Amenemhat I [Egyptian]

7 7 Relief of Senwosret I[Egyptian]

8 8 Guardian figure in the form of King Amenemhat II[Egyptian]

9 9 Face of Senwosret III [Egyptian]

10 10 Head of Amenemhat III [Egyptian]

11 11 Head of Ahmose I [Egyptian]

12 12 Head of Amenhotep I [Egyptian]

13 13 Relief of Thutmose I [Egyptian]

14 14 Kneeling statuette of Thutmose III [Egyptian]

15 15 Hatshepsut [Egyptian]

16 16 Head of Amenhotep II[Egyptian]

17 17 Chair panel of Thutmose IV [Egyptian]

18 18 Head of Amenhotep III [Egyptian]

19 19 Sculptor's model of the head of Akhenaten [Egyptian]

20 20 Head of Tutankhamun [Egyptian]

21 21 Haremhab as a scribe [Egyptian]

22 22 Relief of Ramesses I [Egyptian]

23 23 Statue of Seti I [Egyptian]

24 24 Osirid figure of Merneptah [Egyptian]

25 25 Head of Amenmesse [Egyptian]

26 26 Shawabti of Siptah [Egyptian]

27 27 Facsimile of tomb painting of Ramesses III [Egyptian]

28 28 Artist's sketch of Ramesses IV [Egyptian]

29 29 Relief of Ramesses IX [Egyptian]
Senwosret I 7 Senwosret I 7 ca. ca. 1961–1917 BC 1961-1917 BC
Amenemhat II 8 Amenemhat II 8 ca. ca. 1919–1885 BC 1919-1885 BC
Senwosret II Senwosret II ca. ca. 1887–1878 BC 1887-1878 BC
Senwosret III 9 Senwosret III 9 ca. ca. 1878–1840 BC 1878-1840 BC
Amenemhat III 10 Amenemhat III 10 ca. ca. 1859–1813 BC 1859-1813 BC
Amenemhat IV Amenemhat IV ca. ca. 1814–1805 BC 1814-1805 BC
Dynasty 13, ca. Dynasty 13, ca. 1802–1640 BC 1802-1640 BC

Second Intermediate Period Second Intermediate Period

ca. ca. 1640–1540 BC 1640-1540 BC

Dynasty 14–Dynasty 16, ca. Dynasty 14-Dynasty 16, ca. 1640–1635 BC 1640-1635 BC
Dynasty 17, ca. Dynasty 17, ca. 1635–1550 BC 1635-1550 BC
Tao I Tao I ca. ca. 1560 BC 1560 BC
Tao II Tao II ca. ca. 1560 BC 1560 BC
Kamose Kamose ca. ca. 1552–1550 BC 1552-1550 BC

New Kingdom New Kingdom

ca. ca. 1550–1070 BC 1550-1070 BC

Dynasty 18, ca. Dynasty 18, ca. 1550–1295 BC 1550-1295 BC
Ahmose 11 Ahmose 11 ca. ca. 1550–1525 BC 1550-1525 BC
Amenhotep I 12 Amenhotep I 12 ca. ca. 1525–1504 BC 1525-1504 BC
Thutmose I 13 Thutmose I 13 ca. ca. 1504–1492 BC 1504-1492 BC
Thutmose II Thutmose II ca. ca. 1492–1479 BC 1492-1479 BC
Thutmose III 14 Thutmose III 14 ca. ca. 1479–1425 BC 1479-1425 BC
Hatshepsut (as regent) Hatshepsut (as regent) ca. ca. 1479–1473 BC 1479-1473 BC
Hatshepsut 15 Hatshepsut 15 ca. ca. 1473–1458 BC 1473-1458 BC
Amenhotep II 16 Amenhotep II 16 ca. ca. 1427–1400 BC 1427-1400 BC
Thutmose IV 17 Thutmose IV 17 ca. ca. 1400–1390 BC 1400-1390 BC
Amenhotep III 18 Amenhotep III 18 ca. ca. 1390–1352 BC 1390-1352 BC
Amenhotep IV Amenhotep IV ca. ca. 1353–1349 BC 1353-1349 BC
Akhenaten 19 Akhenaten 19 ca. ca. 1349–1336 BC 1349-1336 BC
Neferneferuaton Neferneferuaton ca. ca. 1338–1336 BC 1338-1336 BC
Smenkhkare Smenkhkare ca. ca. 1336 BC 1336 BC
Tutankhamun 20 Tutankhamun 20 ca. ca. 1336–1327 BC 1336-1327 BC
Aya Aya ca. ca. 1327–1323 BC 1327-1323 BC
Haremhab 21 Haremhab 21 ca. ca. 1323–1295 BC 1323-1295 BC
Dynasty 19, ca. Dynasty 19, ca. 1295–1186 BC 1295-1186 BC
Ramesses I 22 Ramesses I 22 ca. ca. 1295–1294 BC 1295-1294 BC
Seti I 23 Seti I 23 ca. ca. 1294–1279 BC 1294-1279 BC
Ramesses II Ramesses II ca. ca. 1279–1213 BC 1279-1213 BC
Merneptah 24 Merneptah 24 ca. ca. 1213–1203 BC 1213-1203 BC
Amenmesse 25 Amenmesse 25 ca. ca. 1203–1200 BC 1203-1200 BC
Seti II Seti II ca. ca. 1200–1194 BC 1200-1194 BC
Siptah 26 Siptah 26 ca. ca. 1194–1188 BC 1194-1188 BC
Tawosret Tawosret ca. ca. 1188–1186 BC 1188-1186 BC
Dynasty 20, ca. Dynasty 20, ca. 1186–1070 BC 1186-1070 BC
Sethnakht Sethnakht ca. ca. 1186–1184 BC 1186-1184 BC
Ramesses III 27 Ramesses III 27 ca. ca. 1184–1153 BC 1184-1153 BC
Ramesses IV 28 Ramesses IV 28 ca. ca. 1153–1147 BC 1153-1147 BC
Ramesses V Ramesses V ca. ca. 1147–1143 BC 1147-1143 BC
Ramesses VI Ramesses VI ca. ca. 1143–1136 BC 1143-1136 BC
Ramesses VII Ramesses VII ca. ca. 1136–1129 BC 1136-1129 BC
Ramesses VIII Ramesses VIII ca. ca. 1129–1126 BC 1129-1126 BC
Ramesses IX 29 Ramesses IX 29 ca. ca. 1126–1108 BC 1126-1108 BC
Ramesses X Ramesses X ca. ca. 1108–1099 BC 1108-1099 BC
Ramesses XI Ramesses XI ca. ca. 1099–1070 BC 1099-1070 BC

Hight Priests (HP) of Amun Hight Priests (HP) of Amun

ca. ca. 1080–1070 BC 1080-1070 BC

HP Herihor HP Herihor ca. ca. 1080–1074 BC 1080-1074 BC
HP Paiankh HP Paiankh ca. ca. 1074–1070 BC 1074-1070 BC

Third Intermediate Period Third Intermediate Period

ca. ca. 1070–713 BC 1070-713 BC

Dynasty 21, ca. Dynasty 21, ca. 1070–945 BC 1070-945 BC
Smendes Smendes ca. ca. 1070–1044 BC 1070-1044 BC
HP Painedjem I HP Painedjem I ca. ca. 1070–1032 BC 1070-1032 BC
HP Masaharta HP Masaharta ca. ca. 1054–1046 BC 1054-1046 BC
HP Djedkhonsefankh HP Djedkhonsefankh ca. ca. 1046–1045 BC 1046-1045 BC
HP Menkheperre HP Menkheperre ca. ca. 1045–992 BC 1045-992 BC
Amenemnisu Amenemnisu ca. ca. 1044–1040 BC 1044-1040 BC
Psusennes I Psusennes I ca. ca. 1040–992 BC 1040-992 BC
Amenemope Amenemope ca. ca. 993–984 BC 993-984 BC
HP Smendes HP Smendes ca. ca. 992–990 BC 992-990 BC
HP Painedjem II HP Painedjem II ca. ca. 990–969 BC 990-969 BC
Osochor Osochor ca. ca. 984–978 BC 984-978 BC
Siamun Siamun ca. ca. 978–959 BC 978-959 BC
HP Psusennes HP Psusennes ca. ca. 969–959 BC 969-959 BC
Psusennes II Psusennes II ca. ca. 959–945 BC 959-945 BC
Dynasty 22 (Libyan), ca. Dynasty 22 (Libyan), ca. 945–712 BC 945-712 BC
Sheshonq I Sheshonq I ca. ca. 945–924 BC 945-924 BC
Osorkon I Osorkon I ca. ca. 924–889 BC 924-889 BC
Sheshonq II Sheshonq II ca. ca. 890 BC 890 BC
Takelot I Takelot I ca. ca. 889–874 BC 889-874 BC
Osorkon II Osorkon II ca. ca. 874–850 BC 874-850 BC
Harsiese Harsiese ca. ca. 865 BC 865 BC
Takelot II Takelot II ca. ca. 850–825 BC 850-825 BC
Sheshonq III Sheshonq III ca. ca. 825–773 BC 825-773 BC
Pami Pami ca. ca. 773–767 BC 773-767 BC
Sheshonq V Sheshonq V ca. ca. 767–730 BC 767-730 BC
Osorkon IV Osorkon IV ca. ca. 730–712 BC 730-712 BC
Dynasty 23, ca. Dynasty 23, ca. 818–713 BC 818-713 BC
Pedubaste I Pedubaste I ca. ca. 818–793 BC 818-793 BC
Iuput I Iuput I ca. ca. 800 BC 800 BC
Sheshonq IV Sheshonq IV ca. ca. 793–787 BC 793-787 BC
Osorkon III Osorkon III ca. ca. 787–759 BC 787-759 BC
Takelot III Takelot III ca. ca. 764–757 BC 764-757 BC
Rudamun Rudamun ca. ca. 757–754 BC 757-754 BC
Iuput II Iuput II ca. ca. 754–712 BC 754-712 BC
Peftjaubast Peftjaubast ca. ca. 740–725 BC 740-725 BC
Namlot Namlot ca. ca. 740 BC 740 BC
Thutemhat Thutemhat ca. ca. 720 BC 720 BC
Dynasty 24, ca. Dynasty 24, ca. 724–712 BC 724-712 BC
Tefnakht Tefnakht ca. ca. 724–717 BC 724-717 BC
Bakenrenef Bakenrenef ca. ca. 717–712 BC 717-712 BC

Late Period Late Period

ca. ca. 712–332 BC 712-332 BC

Dynasty 25 (Nubian), ca. Dynasty 25 (Nubian), ca. 712–664 BC 712-664 BC
Piye (Establishes Nubian Dynasty in Egypt) Piye (Establishes Nubian Dynasty in Egypt) ca. ca. 743–712 BC 743-712 BC
Shabaqo 30 Shabaqo 30 ca. ca. 712–698 BC 712-698 BC 30 30 Stele of Shabaqo [Egyptian]

31 31 Stele of Shebitqo [Egyptian]

32 32 Menat of Taharqo [Egyptian]

33 33 Statue of Psamtik I [Egyptian]

34 34 Relief of Apries [Egyptian]

35 35 Statuette of Amasis [Egyptian]
Shebitqo 31 Shebitqo 31 ca. ca. 698–690 BC 698-690 BC
Taharqo (Loses control of Lower Egypt) 32 Taharqo (Loses control of Lower Egypt) thirty second ca. ca. 690–664 BC 690-664 BC
Tanutamani (Loses control of Upper Egypt) Tanutamani (Loses control of Upper Egypt) ca. ca. 664–653 BC 664-653 BC
Dynasty 26 (Saite), 688–252 BC Dynasty 26 (Saite), 688-252 BC
Nikauba Nikauba 688–672 BC 688-672 BC
Necho I Necho I 672–664 BC 672-664 BC
Psamtik I 33 Psamtik I 33 664–610 BC 664-610 BC
Necho II Necho II 610–595 BC 610-595 BC
Psamtik II Psamtik II 595–589 BC 595-589 BC
Apries 34 Apries 34 589–570 BC 589-570 BC
Amasis 35 Amasis 35 570–526 BC 570-526 BC
Psamtik III Psamtik III 526–525 BC 526-525 BC
Dynasty 27 (Persian) , 525–404 BC Twenty-seven Dynasty (Persian) , 525-404 BC
Cambyses Cambyses 525–522 BC 525-522 BC
Darius I Darius I 521–486 BC 521-486 BC
Xerxes I Xerxes I 486–466 BC 486-466 BC
Artaxerxes I Artaxerxes I 465–424 BC 465-424 BC
Darius II Darius II 424–404 BC 424-404 BC
Dynasty 28, 522–399 BC Dynasty 28, 522-399 BC
Pedubaste III Pedubaste III 522–520 BC 522-520 BC
Psamtik IV Psamtik IV ca. ca. 470 BC 470 BC
Inaros Inaros ca. ca. 460 BC 460 BC
Amyrtaios I Amyrtaios I ca. ca. 460 BC 460 BC
Thannyros Thannyros ca. ca. 445 BC 445 BC
Pausiris Pausiris ca. ca. 445 BC 445 BC
Psamtik V Psamtik V ca. ca. 445 BC 445 BC
Psamtik VI Psamtik VI ca. ca. 400 BC 400 BC
Amyrtaios II Amyrtaios II 404–399 BC 404-399 BC
Dynasty 29, 399–380 BC Dynasty 29, 399-380 BC
Nepherites I Nepherites I 399–393 BC 399-393 BC
Psammuthis Psammuthis 393–393 BC 393-393 BC
Achoris Achoris 393–380 BC 393-380 BC
Nepherites II Nepherites II 380–380 BC 380-380 BC
Dynasty 30, 380–343 BC Dynasty 30, 380-343 BC
Nectanebo I Nectanebo I 380–362 BC 380-362 BC
Teos Teos 365–360 BC 365-360 BC
Nectanebo II 36 Nectanebo II 36 360–343 BC 360-343 BC 36 36 Statue of the falcon god Horus with Nectanebo II [Egyptian]
Persians Persians 343–332 BC 343-332 BC
Khabebesh Khabebesh 343–332 BC 343-332 BC
Artaxerxes III Ochus Artaxerxes III Ochus 343–338 BC 343-338 BC
Arses Arses 338–336 BC 338-336 BC
Darius III Codoman Darius III Codoman 335–332 BC 335-332 BC

Macedonian Period Macedonian Period

332–304 BC 332-304 BC

Alexander the Great Alexander the Great 332–323 BC 332-323 BC
Philip Arrhidaeus Philip Arrhidaeus 323–316 BC 323-316 BC
Alexander IV Alexander IV 316–304 BC 316-304 BC

Ptolemaic Period Ptolemaic Period

304–30 BC 304-30 BC

Ptolemy I Soter I Ptolemy I Soter I 304–284 BC 304-284 BC
Ptolemy II Philadelphos 37 Ptolemy II Philadelphos 37 285–246 BC 285-246 BC 37 37 Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphos [Egyptian]

38 38 Statue of the falcon god Horus with Nectanebo II [Egyptian]

39 39 Head of Ptolemy II or III [Egyptian]

40 40 Head of Ptolemy VI Philometor [Egyptian]
Arsinoe II 38 Arsinoe II 38 278–270 BC 278-270 BC
Ptolemy III Euergetes I 39 Ptolemy III Euergetes I 39 246–221 BC 246-221 BC
Berenike II Berenike II 246–221 BC 246-221 BC
Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy IV Philopator 222–205 BC 222-205 BC
Ptolemy V Epiphanes Ptolemy V Epiphanes 205–180 BC 205-180 BC
Harwennefer Harwennefer 205–199 BC 205-199 BC
Ankhwennefer Ankhwennefer 199–186 BC 199-186 BC
Cleopatra I Cleopatra I 194–176 BC 194-176 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor 40 Ptolemy VI Philometor 40 180–145 BC 180-145 BC
Cleopatra II Cleopatra II 175–115 BC 175-115 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II 170–116 BC 170-116 BC
Harsiese Harsiese ca. ca. 130 BC 130 BC
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator 145–144 BC 145-144 BC
Cleopatra III Cleopatra III 142–101 BC 142-101 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Ptolemy IX Soter II 116–80 BC 116-80 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy X Alexander I 107–88 BC 107-88 BC
Ptolemy XI Alexander II Ptolemy XI Alexander II 80–80 BC 80-80 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos 80–51 BC 80-51 BC
Cleopatra IV Berenike III Cleopatra IV Berenike III ca. ca. 79 BC 79 BC
Berenike IV Berenike IV 58–55 BC 58-55 BC
Ptolemy XIII Ptolemy XIII 51–47 BC 51-47 BC
Cleopatra VII Cleopatra VII 51–30 BC 51-30 BC
Ptolemy XIV Ptolemy XIV 47–44 BC 47-44 BC
Ptolemy XV Ptolemy XV 44–30 BC 44-30 BC 41 41 Head of Augustus [Egyptian]

Roman Period Roman Period

30 BC –364 AD 30 BC -364 AD

Augustus 41 Augustus 41 30–14 BC 30-14 BC

Byzantine Period Byzantine Period

364–476 AD 364-476 AD

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