27‏/03‏/2011

Algeria....2



Oil paintings by Prince Abdul Qadir, in Versailles Algeria during the Covenant Alvenikielvenigiwn are the nation Semitic born Canaan bin Aoz Ben Sam son of Noah, peace be upon him were settled on the island of the Arabs and they went on then to Syria with their brothers to settle Pfiniqia, the land of Lebanon's current and part of Syria and Palestine, and became the Levant called the land of Canaan they are Arabs in their lineage and their homeland. 


The Phoenicians were in control of internal and external trade of the Mediterranean coasts, having constructed many commercial stations, most notably the Cartagena in 814 BC. M on the coast of Tunisia. We have extended the influence of Cartagena to reach up to the Algerian coast, to found the Algerian coastal cities, and tennis and Kpjayp Cherchell and Hiboun (Annaba), Jijel, Oran. 

Relations, political relations have been Algerian with Cartagena described affection, and this is evident through trade relations and intermarriage, which were among them, Vqirtajnp did not want to extend their influence on the Algerian territory, Madame interests are guaranteed through alliances that existed between the princes of the Berbers, and Madame This makes the commandment of Cartagena and the garrison on the UAE barbarism. 

Economic relations did not matter Cartagena expansion of the Algerian territory, as it was interested in investing the people of the country, child, and this is what made the barbarians hate them, because this exploitation was ugly and harsh, the objective of the Cartagena through the establishment of the friendly relations with the Algerians, is to ensure adequate security to allow trade to flourish. 

  Algeria under the Roman occupation 
- Fired Empire Romanian on the eastern part of the kingdom which was ruled by King Ptolemy I'm Yuba second name of the province Moritanip cesarean prov.mauretania caesareeansis the piece in 1942 after it invaded the Emperor Caligula murder of Ptolemy to become the Kingdom in the possession of the region's military under the authority of the imperial crown directly. It is known that Moritanip East became labeled by cesarean section because of its administrative capital Eul / Cherchell / offline that is not the name Yuba II and has been named his benefactor emperor * Octavewoosagustus * aka Czar in his honor and recognition thanks to him, and then work on the city and make it similar to the cities Alhlinsip in Amadhrha Urban and content of cultural and Nira of Fame by language capital of the Kingdom-day transition to management ROMANIAN was natural to take them home to the rulers of the province and called the new province built on the western part of Mauritania Province Moritanip Tngep prov.mauretania tangitana proportion of the city of Tangier, which was taken from the Roman governor the headquarters of his leadership. was Tangier in turn, an ancient city and the capital of the Kingdom of Bogod by Moritanip geographical term Achtgah ancient name of the * supplier * They are folks Libyan old was in control of the western regions of the Maghreb and most Aldhan that the term root Veniqip on the grounds of kinship language in terms of Allvd and meaning between the words / Mahuren / Phoenician, which means the people of Morocco or Moroccans who live in those sets where Alhamsh It is identical to the meaning of the word * Morocco * in Arabic. and the words * Maor * or * Moore * mouros which Hafdt on the same significance to geographical locations of Greece and Rome and their languages ​​Aruban modern. Perhaps convinced the Romans precisely the meaning of this The term is the one who made them Ihtvdon tags did not change it, even partially, despite the confusion that Ndhan he probably was happening to them when they stay on the two provinces adjacent Tzmian tags / Moritanip caesarean section - Moritanip Tngep / ears of both provinces are located in the west for them, and Aemez between them except my name capitals, and even Third District Asthdthoha that later on the eastern part of the Tsarist Ahtvdoalha the same terminology for the two provinces and Misoha ancient name of its administrative capital Sihiawls sitifis * * * let it Moritanip Alcetvip * 

Kingdoms Albarbripkan Carthaginian civilization track of them in Berber, Berber Fnhm discernible principles of administrative systems and social and certain industries, most especially the mining and the era of oil and alcohol 

When the intensified conflict between Rome and Carthage, and have fought wars Alboubacip, which lasted 120 years from 264 BC. M. To 146 BC. M. Berbers could be free from the influence of Qirtajip, and formed an independent state for themselves and the Far East included. 

Perhaps the most famous kings of the barbarians in this period is Msenisa, stood his life in service of his country and the provision of the interests of his people, and worked to spread the national language among the people, and the fact that an army and a fleet barbarian strong, hit the money in his name, and elevated by means of irrigation and agriculture and to bring that technical experts from Greece and Italy , and work to consolidate its relations with Rome, Carthage loop to achieve their aim, who lived his works to unite Morocco 

And has remained in conflict with Carthage, Rome Nasrth it but sent their armies to overcome the fear of Carthage and unite North Africa and Itaadm bewared Rome and told him to force that result from the political unity of Morocco. When Rome defeated Carthage and destroyed the year 

S, M. Maghreb countries divided into three administrative units ... 
Africa, covering more cities in Tunisia has been placed under the direct management ROMANIAN 
Ksentunaip and divided equally into two kingdoms, the unit Brisp Mcepca'm Msensa Numidia .. The country stretches from the Tunisian to .. and the other Brisp Iokorta 

Mortania and put on a top commander of the barbaric Baucus, this was subject to King Iokorta of the Romans, and his efforts in the promotion of his people .. and work to unify the Maghreb and was able to simplify his influence on the Numidia are all afraid of Rome that Udine him all Morocco was declared by the war, and defeated the Romans and is worth mentioning Baucus said, the king of Mauritania and smelting Iokorta to stop by Rome in its war against Iokorta, and when he escaped, but this is better asked me to Baucus Vslmh this to his enemies, and rewarded him with Rome that his kingdom included the western part of Numidia 

Has enjoyed Moritana Bank independence, prosperity and renaissance in the lost king Yuba II __25, S, M ... 40 AD, this may ensure the king to serve his country and the interests of his subjects and rose in agriculture, irrigation, and economic life flourished in his era .. The capital sentences Cherchell dubbed caesarean section and to bring artists and engineers from Egypt and Greece .. And built palaces in Onhaiha sentence structures and luxury. And became the home of poets, philosophers and writers. Given that the Yuba himself was fond of science. Author of several books on philosophy and Aljgerarvip, history and musical, and made part of the deployment of intensive care 

Culture and knowledge among his subjects ,,,,,,,,,,,, 

Has not been completed for the extension of Roman influence on the absolute all Belad Morocco, but after the failed revolution Takfarinas. Who declared disobedience in Numidia and the revolution of Rome, when he surrendered, Rome extended its authority on the Maghreb and the colonized and settled by direct rule of Northern Africa 

Romanian civilization in North Africa 

Settled by the Romans Maghreb and gave their energies in the colonization and worked at abound the land of Morocco produced lemon Rome and so Hfro wells and dug canals and Ndmwa irrigation methods and vowed to farming and built bridges and roads, including paved roads big and reached between the major cities, such as the road was up between Tangier and Salamara Baeraic It is to Tangier and night, through the night and Tlemcen and Constantine Cartagena, Tripoli and Tavenp these methods have been used in commercial affairs, and although the Romans may Kano Hqoha for military purposes 

The increase in agricultural production and livestock and industrial country Morocco to become a North African financed Rome with grain, fruits, wines, wool, oils and alabaster and oil lamps, textiles and utensils, horses and mules as well as the North African supplies Rumah animals Dari, which was the capital of the empire need in their games and concerts, and resulted in the flourishing trade, the higher the level of living and the inflated wealth and listed buildings, luxury and a growing population also flourished in art, literature and various sciences and the back of the barbarians book creators and philosophers are immortal, especially after the introduction of Christianity by about two centuries to the country and that writer Trtulan who was born in Cartagena, which he studied law and the work of a priest arrived to Rome, where he died in 222 m and most famous writings of those that resisted the pagan and the media thought Moroccan Saint Augustine, who was born in 354 AD and died in 430 AD city of Annaba and months, his books | The city of the gods and has appeared burgeoning art in Morocco during the Roman era in the construction of the temple luxury adorned with columns marble e Almathil beautiful Almsarih and bathrooms adorned with Balvsevsa homes and characterized Alrukhmp porticoes, columns, fountains and gardens, and still some of these effects ROMANIAN scattered in various countries of the North African Onha particularly from Sousse to the maximum and the night in Morocco 


Known for this state-based Shura applicable therein, and the justice of imams, and righteous and piety and knowledge, and flourish, has been living under the shadow followers of all Islamic sects, and they were practicing their worship freely and safely, and they have their mosques and their own homes where they live Massanin rights fairly and equitably without differentiating between the doctrine and the doctrine of 

Stretched the limits of the State Rustumiya in the period from periods depths of Egypt's borders eastward to the city of Tlemcen in the far reaches of Morocco East West., Attacked by Abu Abdullah al-Shi'i calling the Fatimids in the year 296 AH, Vadmourha and ravaged by corruption, and people killed, not only so, but the burning of Library infallible after taking books, including sports and industrial. 

This state lasted for nearly 140 years, since it originated in the year 156 and 296 of immigration, any more than the life of the Umayyad and the Abbasid state. 

Succeeded Abdul Rahman ibn Rustam in the consolidation of state during the period estimated to be governed by him (144-168 AH) was succeeded by his son Abd al-Wahhab who stayed in the state Rustumiya twenty years, and then "returned bin Abdul Wahab," who ruled more than fifty years (188-238 AH), and then follow up in the state Rustumiya five of the princes, they are: Abu Bakr bin returned, and Abu Aliqzan, Abu Hatem, Afeeqhob I returned, I'm my father Valiqzan Aliqzan last princes. 

Of the most famous cities in the Rustamiya: City "Tehrt" capital, and the City "Oran," The City "shelf" and the city of "Ghadir" and the city "green" 

Care of the imams of the Rustamiya the economic aspect of their state, Vahtamoa agriculture was a high incidence of horticulture and cultivation of grain, safflower, flax, sesame, palm, and various fruits, figs and olives, were they bring huge profits, has been infested river, and established Alrstmeon reservoirs and ponds for a large water discovered by archaeologists, The Court of design and engineering, to maintain the water days of drought, but they delivered the water to households through pipelines and canals. 

And cared for as well as grazing livestock, large pastures fertile in the State of Rustumiya, were raising sheep, cattle, camels, horses, mules, donkeys, and the trade lucrative, and exported to neighboring countries, and they exploit it in the production of wool, said I'm Hawqal describes the livestock in Tehrt and Ohawwazha: "which is a metal animals, cattle, sheep, mules and Albrven Lafrahip, and they have a lot of honey and ghee. " 

Was interested in Alrstmeon trade greatly interesting, Voncioa markets in different cities, was popular with various types of goods and supplies that come from within the State Rustumiya itself or from other countries through trade relations, as it was for the State of Rustumiya business relations with many countries Kalondls, Egypt and the Sudan and other countries in the Orient, Morocco, was the trade caravans graduated from the State Rustumiya loaded with various types of goods and supplies to that country, and return as well as loaded with goods produced in that country, and the gold trade and sale of slaves in vogue at the time, and the State Rustumiya great activity where, and reached traders activity in the State j Rustamiya to the extent that there was a specialization in the market, was the copper market, and the arms market, and Jewelry Market, and the fabrics market and other markets. 

And also took the Rustamiya create a library of scientific wealth of the various arts of science and impacts, and libraries to the famous library "infallible" that used to contain thousands of folders and books, which some researchers to three hundred thousand volumes, was contained between the shelves books in the science of the canon of interpretation and modern jurisprudence and standardization, and books in medicine, mathematics, engineering, astronomy, history, language and other various sciences, and was not by limited to any particular madhhab, but she was collecting the works of various Islamic schools, and libraries, famous other "closet Nefoussa" University of the thousands of books, and also did not prejudice the homes of scientists in the Rustamiya the presence of private libraries. 

 State Alidiricipkant regions of Morocco third of the state before the emergence of Rustumiya Adarissa made up of several emirates disputed ruling forces different in the north, center and south, and its population is distributed among the followers of divine religions and several worship idols. Able to Moulay Idriss Ben Abdallah, affiliated with the House of Prophet Mohammad access to Morocco in 788 AD and has pledged allegiance Berber tribes City, and follows, putting the nucleus of the third country independent of the caliphate in the Muslim world after the Emirate of Cordoba and the State Rustamiya, a State Idrisid. 

After the death of Idris I pledged allegiance to tribes, son of Idris II in 803 AD, who founded the city of Fez, as the capital of his reign, also worked on the organization of administration and the army and unite the country, and did not exceed the limits of Adarissa west region of Tlemcen. After the death of Idris II, his sons fought against the rulers, the Kingdom was divided and weakened to the 974 m fall. 

State Alogelbipalogalbp (184-296 AH / 800-909 AD) belongs to the family of an Arab tribe Tamim, ruled Africa (Tunisia and the bulk of the Arab Maghreb) from the end of the second century until the end of the third / ninth century AD. The borders of the State Aghlabid expand and shrink according to the power of princes and weaknesses. Foundations of the state is likely Ibrahim bin bin Salim bin Egal Khafaja bin al-Tamimi. His father, who often called his first State of the income of the African family, which had settled in Merv in Khorasan Alroz, since the Islamic conquest. The establishment of this state during the reign of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. The rulers of this country dubbed princes, and remained under the authority of the Abbasid caliphs nominally, Vsqua money on their behalf, and Ktaboa them on the platforms, without that allow them to intervene in their internal affairs. 


The establishment of the emirate and its rulers months 

Income is likely bin Salim African forces with Mohammed Bin Shaggy year 144 AH / 761 CE, and the reign of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur the mandate of African (Tunisia), year 148 AH / 765 CE, but shares injury year AH 150 / AD 767 led to his death, he knew a martyr, and his son Ibrahim, a small, did not exceed ten years old, I spent his youth in the lesson and achievement in Fustat (Egypt). And when he grew revenue in the Jund al-Egypt, and then made available to him to enter Morocco in the state of al-Fadl ibn spirit between 177-179 AH / 794-796 AD, and reached thanks to the courage and good hatched to take over the corpses in the state of Harthama Bin eyes of the African, then the conquest and her new Mohammed bin fighter after being trounced by a workers year 181 AH / 798 CE, his response to the emirate. And aware of what the Caliph Harun al-Rashid in good alayna and loyalty to the succession, made him ruler of the country at the beginning of year 184 AH / 800 AD, after having promised to pay forty thousand dinars annually to the House Finance caliphate in Baghdad, and dispensing with annual aid that was provided by Egypt to Ivrivip and the amount of one hundred thousand dinars

Abraham began his mandate to build a city or the old palace Abbasid years 184-185 AH / 800-801 AD in the south-east of Kairouan, and taken his capital, and the transfer of arms and the number, then go to his family and his wife and his servants and the people of confidence from his host. He was referring to liberation from the domination of personnel rioters and Mdafthm, and was among the measures resorted to to achieve this it has to buy members of the Sudan under the pretext of using them in the industry for people to ease their burden, but use them in the army and trained to take up arms. 

That the revolutions in Morocco, it was soon returned to her first, and there was what he was feared by Ibrahim bin mostly, it erupted Khreish bin Abdul Rahman Al Kindi year 186 AH / 802 CE, and went to the Aghlabids and the Abbasids in the same time, disarmament black logo Abbasids, sent Abraham his army to fight at the marsh Tunisia, and defeated him and the imposition of security. In the year 189 AH / 805 AD revolted against him the people of Tripoli, had been subordinated to him, and they were driven him Sufyan bin Lighted ill-treated them. Ibrahim sent an army brought the rebels to Kairouan, then pardoned them and brought them back to their country. However, the strife and revolutions did not subside in Tripoli, was the irritation from time to time, especially for fighting Rustamid Aghlabids, even down to them Aghlabid for the areas they occupy, south of Tripoli. 

The most serious of these revolutions revolution leader Ibrahim and his minister Imran bin gladiator 194 AH / 810 CE, who felt his own power after the great services provided by the guardian Ibrahim bin mostly, seized the Kairouan, and dominated most of the country's African, and continued the revolution a year even regained Ibrahim authority after paying tender soldiers leaving him, and forced to flee to Imran country Zab, and entered Ibrahim Kairouan, Vqla doors, and walls demolished so as not to go back to the Revolution. 

Abraham looked forward to Morocco, where the maximum State Idrisid Idris forced to please him, and asked him to stop. The total independence of Abraham, including his hand under his influence and power that he had received Charlemagne in the Abbasid capital of the emirate, and a truce with the governor of Sicily, Constantine Mvadap provided for the prisoners. 

Ibrahim bin mostly died year 196 AH / 812 AD, after the ruling African period of twelve years. The jurist, a man of letters, poet, orator, and a view of the rescue. And his successor in office his son Abu al-Abbas Abd Allah ibn Ibrahim (196-201 AH / 812-817 AD) who was following Tripoli to his father, took his brother to increase God's allegiance to him from the heads of the soldiers, and then entered Kairouan year 197 AH / 812 CE and approved by the Caliph al-Ma'mun to the hand of an African

Agent Abdullah the country's population treatment involves a lot of hardship and injustice, and did not listen to the advice of the people of opinion. And change the tax system and started the ten stable financial tax, so as not to be affected by the annual income Bal_khasb and famine, the people he was angry, and demanded the cancellation and return to a system which Atadoh ten, his brother as a factor increasing the treatment is bad, as he did with his family. He died in the year 201 AH / 817 CE. He turned the emirate to increase after his brother-Allaah ibn Ibrahim (201-223 AH / 817-837 AD) was the most eloquent tongue to his family and most of them polite, and he says the hair, and takes care of poets. 

There have been many movements out of obedience increase in the days of Allah until he no longer controls, in some years only to Hadharth and surrounded by, and returns the causes of unrest continue to rise on the policy of his brother unfair with the people and his disdain for manned. The revolutions that have in the face with a revolution I'm Alsqlbip in the year 207 AH / 822 AD in Beja, which spent easily, and the revolution of Amr ibn Muawiya Qaisi year 208 AH / 823 AD known as the Revolution of Kasserine, killing him also, then the revolution Mansour Tunbve year 209 AH / 824 AD in Tunisia, which almost cost the state of the majority. Leader and was able to defeat the forces of God increased more than once, until I got out, many cities have to obey him, and he became their pimp who entered in obedience Tunbve, including the Beja, and the island and Stforp, Bizerte, and the other is pumped. Was left in the hands of God to increase only a few cities, have also tried to Kairouan Tunbve occupation itself, and ending the reign of God increase year 209 AH / 824 AD did not succeed, hit the rail Mansour Tunbve name. 

Scholars tried to Africa to mediate between the increase of God and Tunbve such as Abu Mehrez and Asad ibn al Furat, but the war did not stop, that the increase is a big offensive in the middle of Jumada year 209 AH / 12 October 824 AD, Fanahzm Tunbve to his palace in Tunis, and managed his men escaped, but what soon gathered strength, and came back fighting again, and erosion of the event of increased God again, until he almost lost everything, leaving nothing in his hand, but plug and Nfzawp and Tripoli, and did not save him but a dispute between Mansour Tunbve and Amer ibn Nafi one of their leaders, as it turned Amer on Tunbve He was arrested and imprisoned on the island of Djerba, and then kill him. Things are not organized Amer ibn Nafi was forced to flee because of the disruption in the ranks of his army, but did not end strife of his death, after a period of turmoil as long as three years. 

Having restored order to increase God Aghlabide decided to initiate the opening of Sicily in 212 AH / 827 CE, Fjhz campaign was given leadership to the judge Faqih Asad ibn al Furat, who was on his knowledge knight brave, and I got the campaign in his shrine on the far southwestern shore, the first landed in Sicily a series of long lasted for fifty-two years, and ended the opening Syracuse in 264 AH. 

Died increase God years old 223 / 838 after the mandate of the bus Bjlail business and calamities, lasted for more than twenty-one years old, and his successor the emirate's brother, mostly Abu Egal known Bkhozr or Khozron (223-226 AH / 838-841 AD) was the third sons of Abraham Ben-mostly those who turn the emirate 


















































































































































































































  



























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