There are a lot of contributions to feminism, which tried to distinguish between the speech of women and the discourse on women, which is produced by any man, and recalls Margo Badran contrast to the principled positions of the two letters, it says:
"While emerged patriarchal attitudes in support of women within the framework of contact with European society, which was where women are visible in general, the first feminist in women is associated with high-class as a result of the wide range of education and observation of their own lives during periods of great upheaval, has seen Muslim women that Islam within Women's rights denied to them because of customs and traditions, which imposed the name of religion, and through understanding and proper practice of Islam, women can restore their fundamental rights, and will also serve her community and her family. The discourse of masculinity, which emerged through the writings of such as "women's liberation" of Qasim Amin, and the book " Women in the Middle "for Mark Fahmy, and the book" Amrotna in the Law and Society "of the Tahar Haddad, has emphasized that the decline in the Arab community due to the decline in the status of women, which is due in turn to their lack of education and suffer from societal constraints such as the veil and segregation in the middle and upper classes and focused on that These practices are not sanctioned by religion and demanded the liberation of women from registration for the benefit of their countries and see the many men that the speech was a speech utilitarian aims to use women as an instrument of reform in that period.
Under the letter of the man since become aware of women trying to achieve in the community, swinging between the alliance-building and rejection of the role, in the forties - for example - we find inconsistencies between the two on the table, for whereas we find many examples of men and AWA in fact the case and tried to express their views which, it appears another group rejects all this. Hence, the study lists some of the views of the thinkers behind endeavored to encourage women and strengthen the cause of equality, then the texts are supplied by the women at the deniers of the historical role.
Despite the many discussions that have been raised about the differentiation between men and women, or equality between them, the issue of women is still intractable, as the situation of the problem itself is not a healthy situation, and the fact that all these sterile debates, can not give rise to only increase the problem complex and intertwined, because that will stop women face to face with the man, Tnadilh and upholds the same as if they were confronted with discount unfair, but it is not of this in many or few, the link that connects between the sexes is not related preference, but is a link complement, all differentiation between men and women is the futility of pointless, because the area where he works, each different from the field, who employs the other. Since marriage is a unit which combines the sexes, the lack of which has a women is impossible to perfection, coupled with men, and the lack of which has a man impossible to perfection, too, if accompanied by women "is the idea of complementarity between men and women put forward by Professor Zakaria Ibrahim is to see more objective-oriented opponents of equality and claimants, and seems to be in time Packer had addressed (1944) to worsen the issue, which has taken its peak several will be clear with a letter Almnadlten Doria Shafiq and Angie Plato. especially as they were in the time later (between 1949 and 1951) may criticize each their ideas of inequality and the setback of women to the House, has been justified by Mr. Zakaria Ibrahim also need the idea of marriage itself, which break away from the man in the belief that they enslave him to women, and to confirm the idea of integration itself.
There is another letter to the safety of Progressive thinker Moses in 1948, claiming the women's liberation, which calls for consideration to the view Qasim Amin, who called for by the end of the twentieth century,
Despite the passage of half a century between the vocation of Qasim Amin and his call; but what is surprising consistency in the views Enlightenment. Salama Moussa says:
"When we look at the Arab peoples, which got rid of the colonial British or French, we find that they tend in the renaissance to achieve several goals, the first public education and second, manufacturing and third, the emancipation of women ... and this renaissance Habiba to the heart of every Arab-informed; because most what separates between Arab and Western nations is the status of women between them, and the emancipation of women bear a range of meanings; Thenne are freed from ignorance to education, and editing of the abolition of the veil tradition, then equality in constitutional and civil rights
This means that a woman half a century after Mkatvp men and Jihad in the cause of the issues of emancipation, education, equality and freedom, not Tnlha all or part of it yet, and demonstrates the validity of that is the enlightened speech of the men themselves, who assert their rights.
There is a third letter is an enlightened thinker Ismail appearance (1891 - 1962), which was more dramatic than his previous speeches, during which the historical perspective to the disadvantaged situation of women through the many questions put to the reactionaries in the community, says the appearance of:
"To go beyond the Center High appropriated by the nature of women, so that made her guardianship of the child master the creatures of the clones: Who palm muscles of women and mind itself that joined men in the building of a civilization? Who is it that families and suppression of feelings and the most vulnerable brain and the slightest muscle? Who stopped in the act and buried alive for her feel as the creature who does not like it no weight in life? Who kept ignorant, weak, repressed passion pariah opinion? Who is taken by a divine and a game of tricks? Who took advantage of the passion of love, the supreme human emotions and Astzlha, and then deny it? Who made her feel helpless creature as poor health? Who revived the desires and deaden the mind? Who paid to deceit and cunning and resourceful? Who is arming them with tears? I think that our masters have the reactionaries have knowledge of certainty.
Although the language Ismail appearance cynical but it strengthens the perception of inferiority of women and the stereotypical image in the community, as well as questions that Alastinkarip which proved by the
Inequality, which receives from women than men since ancient times and until 1949, when he published his book; ingenious greater evidence of a reactionary permeated society and is attracted to the back of the hand, and his confession that the offender total men on the other hand, the best evidence of that termination of the article sentences highly influential deaf Total "we the men had rolled the women Bodoaina Ansllna and to say them in the end stench created a minimum. "
This is for the opinions of men, what about the views of women in the same context, "says Aisha Abdel uterus (girl beach) in an article titled (translated from her 1945)," even if the modern renaissance, and removed the woman from her home, the man was the owner of a call out, and it has direction and in his leadership went through it where he wants, and then gone held accountable and punished and opposed Ithn, which is the one who called the face and drove .. not men feel that women in their thing, in the view itself is something else, or realize that what Tmtloh which may be far from reality, strange it does not find it in themselves and do not feel it in worldly terms, we we who have found themselves and have reached the culture and adulthood and maturity status where they can be aware of their feelings and Emezn Chksithn, we go back sight in the literature and write about us, if at least this, which represents the man saw us more than represent us, and if too many ferocious than a mixture funny humor and the hypocrisy and the prosecution ... the scourge of the East are those who took up pens Fjallowa in every valley, and addressed every issue, and Thmwa in each case and tell the story of a female in the non-experience nor knowledge, and the risk of these come from they - when they took up pens - stood up to the leadership of the social, thus unknowingly caused harm to the nation, including the promoted goods are corrupt, and falsified the minds of children from quackery cheap and threw to the wrong arising from the provisions of misleading clown ..!
Different speech girl beach of a speech men enlightened in the same period in the lot and agreed in part, in the sense that they failed her on the people who speak without knowledge about women and classify their actions through their reactions are, and here does not appear in the discourse (public) any case of injustice that woman fell under Nerha by the restrictions the man himself, who already by the end of the nineteenth century the beginning of the twentieth century that the students are editing, so the girl beach attack came on the pan without pens determine direction and discussion.
The era saw the forties - too - to the important event of the departure of a leading Egyptian National Action Ms. / Hoda Shaarawi, 1946, the birth of a new generation of
University students, who continued to work for women, Vtkont the National Committee of students, workers and elected nice Zayat representative for students in the university in the Committee. And founded the Association of Zaynab al-Ghazali (Muslim women) is an independent organization of the Muslim Brotherhood. Also established the Dr Doria Shafik Union (girl of the Nile) in 1949 and issued a magazine called Union itself, where the text of the program:
1. Seek to raise the level of the Egyptian family (men + women, as an integrated whole) culturally, socially and health.
2. Seek to enact legislation, which is investigating strengthen the family and avoid factors of division and disintegration and that by restricting divorce and polygamy so Iqsran necessities which Tjisahma, and protects the family from the product of abuse of this license, and thus confer protection on the maternal and child together, and our vehicle to achieve these goals are limited in seek to determine a woman's right to elect and the prosecution of the nation to be able to defend the rights of Egyptian women and contribute to the issuance of the legislation to ensure these rights, stability and circulation.
Once Doria announced its intention in 1948 at the initiative at work, so she devoted herself completely "to recover from its crisis in the Egyptian woman who has suffered for centuries, bringing to achieve full equality with men axis of the life of the modern Egyptian woman who does not accept the waiver no matter how small.
The issue of women and politics was always occupies the top of the Doria's writings, often published articles talking about the lack of political awareness among women in their society because the policy does not fit with the conditions of women. Hence, Doria offers a scathing critique of women who know how to read and write, however lacked the political and social awareness:
"Women of our generation did not learn after take charge of their lives, and who are not ready yet to enter the political arena, and drew my attention to this issue, what I saw in our society, in particular, it is rare to find a woman interested in what goes on in public life, as if Egypt's circumstances and events issues do not affect Egyptian House, and those are the mothers who Incin and were preparing a new generation of politicians and literature. I am referring here to our understanding of local affairs and external
It is rare to find a woman know the names of politicians in our country, not to mention the politicians out of Egypt, the information can be obtained simply from the newspapers that come to the house, our children and our husbands and our brothers. But most women do not only read a page of deaths and social news, and if their children face a question on the issue of concern to public opinion, be unable to answer. Rather than take advantage of social events in serious conversations prefer to discuss fashion and the exchange of rumors. This waste when our time without the benefit of one woman, and I'm not asking that the work of women in politics, but I think it must be aware of what is going on, we hurt in our children if we can not explain what is going on from the events in public life, it must gain awareness of including political events, we create our children
In the second half of the forties was the call of Doria Shafiq of women educated to interact with political events, which was churns out of society, which raises the issue of equality and education in the opinion of Doria aside, what seems to be a magazine in the first appeared, the address bourgeoisie high over the issue of education.
With the year 1948 kicked off a girl Nile change and interact with the problems of the general rule of women in Egyptian society, and raises issues already experienced by the vast majority of the community to discuss and try to put some possible solutions:
"We (women) here in Egypt are fighting a bitter battle is not against gambling, and alcohol (here indicate Doria Shafiq to France, where he launched and the Secretary of the new health campaign against alcohol there), but in defense of the girl who is willing to join the Faculty of Engineering, agriculture, and educated wishing in contributing to public life are required to apply the Constitution and the right to elect men, even about a woman who dared to claim its share of seats in Parliament or judiciary committees .. men in Egypt do not seek what is good for their country, they are fighting our best to develop the country, and they do so in the name of religion Sometimes, though we never heard of religion prevents women and their right to life, other times they are doing in the name of tradition, any tradition of this which stand between the woman and to do good? .. in fact, is the inferiority complex suffered from some Egyptians up and which push them to such behavior, they fear that a woman holds a position of authority .. gentlemen Open the way before us, and called on his way behind normal
Has changed address Doria of the Special General, in the sense that the discourse has taken a character ideology aimed at the general good of society, which can be regarded as a quantum leap from talking about "the nature of women" to talk about "women's rights," which calls for men and their country in a series of articles to make room for women to play active role in society and participate in public life "to deprive an educated woman has the right enjoyed by illiterate men is a crime against Egypt, and the community will be deprived of democracy as long as women are denied full political rights, and men who stand between women and their rights These men do not love their country, with Egypt being denied the services of those women. " It demands of women themselves in 1924 (p. 27 of study).
Then deepened Doria Shafik more on the issues of community Vttrguet in editorials magazine girl the Nile to the problems of marriage and divorce, and underlined that Egypt is suffering from higher rates of divorce in the world, "a third of families that form in the first year, crashed at the end of the year, and thus Our lives continually exposed to the word you may utter fool or drunken or ignorant behavior, social and religious right, so we set up the Union "girl of the Nile" to defend the family, and therefore also demanded the right to vote until we are engaged in directing the events in the determination of our destinies. " And called for the establishment of women's party independent protects women's rights and defend them and fighting for the women demanded concerted efforts in pursuit of this goal: "We do not view the work of women in politics in a country that lacks sound management of social affairs, we need to party unite our ranks even solve the problems with officials unable to for solving this problem for fear of criticism of the reactionary elements that explain everything from the logic of religion and tradition, is not it strange that Polygamy remains the basis for married life? Is it not strange when the quarrel the husband with his wife on the trivia matters that enough for one word to inextricably whatever their relationship, even though if they have children? and a list of social injustices countless flaws to be our party that seeks to correct, special issues of marriage and divorce and inheritance, education and political rights and other required support from the party that has the ability and knowledge and strength that can accomplish its mission but could party girl Nile that contributes to in solving those problems, not to be the so-supervised?
Rafii says about women as part of the society: "Women are half of society; eternal truth was and remains the basis of humanity since God created Adam and Eve created him .. and for that we must work to women's progress as we work on the progress of man ... We need men that we recognize their political rights for women .. The civil rights are recognized by, but we must preserve these rights, and care really what is missing and the completion of our legislation in this area ... ". This is the beginning opened by Rafii, written to reflect the presence of men enlightened leaders to stop their thoughts along with Hamas, women, and to compliment the position of Anji Plato in her book, "We Egyptian Women" On the other hand
The primary motive which made Anji provide their views bold - about limiting the community itself, and then put the subjugation of women - in this book is already deteriorating conditions of Egypt's political and social development in the forties and early fifties - during the Egyptian revolution second - due to exacerbation of the risk of having the British colonialists and their lackeys in the Egypt, the keenness of the usurper greed to stop the proliferation of normal education until the whole country, ignorance, illiteracy, Vieit is where looting, and exploitation, not worry about voice of the people vigilant not bother him words of the masses informed educated, Ignorance, illiteracy allies been sincere to colonialism, which was dominated by the rule of Egypt since 1919; then bear the perennial struggle between him and the People's National Movement, which is inseparable by all cases in Egypt, when Yerkes colonial education movement so widespread ignorance, must extends this women's status in society so that women are half of society and it Vinalha and hanging out what gets it, and beset by , has passed the education in Egypt in general and women's education in particular, several things:
1. Cut the education budget and it is enough to compare with a budget of education in the reign of Ismail, was 8% of the state budget and now (ie in 1949) up to 5.1%.
2. In 1873 established Ismail, the first elementary school for girls (school of the Sunni) and created the second in 1895, did not arise elsewhere until the national revolution of 1919, meaning that for nearly forty years was not in Egypt, only two schools for girls, and even these schools canceled British free, which was List them, and that since 1894, secondary education, it was not an impact at that stage.
This is the first evils which beset society as the image of Anji Plato in her book, "We Egyptian Women."
While images of colonialism itself was yes renaissance industrial after the French Revolution, which ushered in an era of prosperity to Europe all of them, so it advocates industrial economy the new call of freedom and prosperity, equality and carrying the banner of the call to the abundance of production, and it was natural that reflected an appeal of freedom, brotherhood and equality on the Status of Women in society. As for the people who stopped by dams, the restrictions on this recent progress, economic development and Faguet left behind modern civilization, the delay reflected the status of women remained
- Whatever that struggled - in the set, which returns to the old colonial policy, as well as Community law outdated.
Anji Plato explained in her book, "We Egyptian Women" general climate of Egypt, Anne, who took the book's publication at the end of forties, or the reasons that invited them to discuss issues raised by the book. House where the late forties by fierce arguments over the rights of women between the two main categories: the team that supports equality between women and men in society, and the team who opposes this equality, and takes in all of these groups differ between the two sects over the extent of support or opposition.
Anji has called for ideas Plato to monitor the community took a letter from the phenomena of underdevelopment and relapse. It is, therefore, demanded that the Egyptian society need to examine the scientific and realistic to the situation of Egyptian women and their problems and demands.
Anji argument as presented in the prevailing social reality of Egypt in the forties, "Women of the House" to prove how the status of Egyptian women in Egyptian society is much lower than the status of man in it? Then this question of stepping into a bigger question is how the Egyptian women - always - a victim of outdated traditions and reactionary ideas? To remain informed expression describes the real situation of women in the Egyptian family is a famous proverb that "women do not go out of her house only twice, when she married and at her death." Egyptian woman - as the image of words Anji - prisoners do not always depart from prison only to enter another, graduated from the prison of her family to the prison of her husband and from the prison to infinity; grave.
Let Anji "The work of women, which is a social necessity have as an individual and the total in general, as it creates such an independent person, to earn bread on their own without being dependent on one, and have the freedom to choose her life partner and choose to live a decent life and honest, as well as guarantee to the community contribution of half of its members do not provide reasons for its progress and development, "the letter Anji Plato ft - substantiated - over the degradation suffered by Egypt in the forties, and had the greatest impact on society, which began in turn calls for women to go home - never left except for a few years in the presence of synergy People of the Revolution and then to be confronted colonialism and its soldiers, it is here discussed at length not to continue teaching the desired image, especially with the dramatic progress achieved by the policy of the great Muhammad Ali in the modern state in education, but Plato condemns his sons who have undergone in the rule of Egypt to the English and were complicit
With them against the Egyptian people - and to stop work because the work does not mean only raise the level of her life, and give a measure of economic independence, and thus a greater chance to not be a man who feeds her, and is a chance to feel her personality and her humanity.
Also discussed Anji Plato issue of equality between men and women and confirmed his request seriously, given the high voice claimants inequality between those who do not want to be women feel its entity individual independent, which makes it able to choose their partners without being shown it casually, without marrying her is then resort to a multiplicity of wives, which was the prevailing community also appropriated by Anji by counting the numbers of cases multiplied by the wives as well as cases of adultery, which reported its laws, including full benefits until the lack of equal punishment for men and women in which it is as determined by Angie "that we draw the attention of these gentlemen to the fact that other spoken by the figures in official statistics:
• In the 1939 event 52 421 183 823 divorce in exchange for marriage.
• In the 1940 event 54 228 199 831 divorce in exchange for marriage.
• In the 1924 event 68 055 226 576 divorce in exchange for marriage.
This, if for anything, it shows the extent of the degradation caused to society is either to collapse, which is - well - understanding error of Islamic law, which were analyzed for a man to marry four, has resorted Anji to religious discourse to refute the act of divorce also Qur'anic verses:
• ", then only one".
• "will not be able to do perfect justice between wives even if your ardent desire."
Which does not promote polygamy, but on justice checks and balances between the spouses, and many of the teachings of Islam emphasize the idea of equality, cooperation and tolerance not only between men and women, but among all human beings, where Islam came and realistic of the revolution on the conditions of ignorance and make the lives of other, more just and purity of humanity.
The criticism Anji Flaton to the conditions of society rigid public under the yoke of colonialism, is the biggest proof that the status of women deteriorating not be separated from the deterioration of society itself - which did not enjoy any aspect of freedom - which made them determined time and one he lived in the Egyptian society enjoying equality men and women, where "known human era
Women were the Maoist to the man fully equal, but the superiority sometimes and that when women were common in economic life and production to the side with men on an equal footing with him, this was in the Pharaonic era, has pictures of Max Miller of known that in saying, "did not include any people ancient or modern legal status of women, such as high population of the Nile Valley, footprints show us the woman as she is going in the streets alone and working in the trade and industry.
The status of women the same form, "Will Durant" in the author known as "the history of civilization" as follows: "It seems that this superiority in the status of women was caused by the system diluted the mother tribe, who characterized the Egyptian society, women were not only the lady of the house, but the property all real estate in accordance with the rates of Women. " When he hung on the human eras of slavery dark; woman fell prey to the system of slavery, and turned into an instrument of luxury and fun for men only, bought and sold in markets, and record the history of mankind this stage for all the peoples of the earth about, where the woman was a prisoner of the house, or "Harem" is not involved in production, but live off the work of the husband who Iwoeha and controlled.
The theme of "Women of the House" stems historically from these dark ages, humanity and left behind her
And talk Anji Plato in her memoirs about the role of the women's movement in 1951 (abolition of the Treaty of 1936) following the outbreak of armed struggle against the British base in the Canal Zone, and the withdrawal of eighty thousand workers were working in the camps, the British are following the abrogation of the Treaty in 1936 by the Egyptian government, say ( on the impact that formed the Commission on Young Women's Federation).
In 10 -10 -1951 Committee began issuing an appeal to women and the Nile Valley was published by the Egyptian day 20-10, as the Committee has issued a special appeal to world public opinion and, most importantly, according to a program of the Commission is the need to organize an economic boycott of official and popular for British goods, and the need to establish an office to find jobs for workers who went on to work in the British camps, as well as the composition and ambulance units of the young Egyptian. The objective of the Committee to mobilize the masses and women organized to provide material support and moral heroes of the guerrilla in the Canal Zone)
In 1951 formed the Women's Committee of the popular resistance led by CISA Nabrawi, and participated in which a large number of women working in the Popular Resistance Movement in the Canal Zone. And followed this phase of the redemptive work a few months the July Revolution and the struggle of women to enter a new phase is also linked to the history of Egypt. That is why the Egyptian women have made steady progress without interruption during the past fifty years (. But amid the land of barbed always had its bid, has deliberately study to remind the stages of political struggle fought by women to confirm that the creativity presented by the Egyptian woman - well - not in isolation from the Community events car
Shahida El-Baz believes in the study of her liberal phase in the history of the women's movement: that, despite the vitality of the women's movement at this stage, July 23, 1952 but did not succeed in changing the status of Egyptian women are radical, which can be traced for the following reasons:
1. Failure of the Egyptian society and dependent politically, economically and socially and the spread of poverty, ignorance and disease, together with the monopolization of power and wealth by a coalition of semi-feudal classes and the bourgeoisie has made the majority of the people of the poor silent.
2. Despite the participation of women from the middle classes and working in the national movement in the period from 1946 - 1951 except that the women's movement in the semi-liberal movement was an elite consisting mainly of women aristocracy and the bourgeoisie who Mlkn surplus of time and money of activity (....) Reflected affiliation class in accepted economic and social order prevailing Vavcqdt the women's movement in general social inclusiveness Vision, which fails to understand that women and conquer and exploit associated with underdevelopment and structural oppression and exploitation in society.
3. The continuing cultural duplication in the Egyptian society to the existence of many conflicts between the supporters of change and supporters of the traditional adherence to the situation of women.