24‏/03‏/2011

Nasser era


Army is a public institution of great importance in the Egyptian state, in the homeland of a centralized political and geographical location, sector, there is no doubt that the creation of a strong army capable of protecting the social structure of Egypt of the most important ingredient entrusted with the survival of this community, both in style capitalist or in multiple inside of the patterns, not randomly be linked to economic development since the establishment of the modern state in Egypt - during the era of Muhammad Ali - the army. Therefore, the work of Europeans - especially the British occupation - of destroying it as a shield for the project development and nation-building, have recognized the colonists - in that time - this fact, Vhallowa without repeating the building, she was not allowed to engage in the ranks only to the children of groups associated with them economically and ideologically and culturally, and is not break the ban only under the enormous pressure imposed by the imperatives of the imperialist camp linked to strategy and policy and the nature of its conflicts. 
"Then penetrated the sons middle class the midst of militarism, was of the Free Officers, which they have as much later that the power is taken away, which was claimed by many" and did not - there - at this stage of any political color tend to revolt, as it was just a revolution, "the wearers of persimmon" soon began appearing in military uniform everywhere: in streets, in cafes, and in the clubs. 
Muhammad Naguib as the successful tour in the district, where he was met everywhere, it ceases to be a storm of applause and shouts of "Long live the answer," while assuming the press suggesting that he is the mastermind of the revolution as a whole, then began to focus on the features of familiar 
Modest to Major General, did not pay little attention to the young officers who were surrounding him " 
That which characterized the July 23 that the political system, which by and is the Free Officers, the closest to a "sample" a political revolutionary, and far from being the embodiment of the political force of weight in the expression of political interests and specific social, the organ solo is limited very in its members, has beaten the existing system and controlled it in a few hours, and this bang made in the few hours before dawn on July 23, there was the movement of political and social conflict over the next two years, took place from different sites altogether; by becoming a leadership revolution gained the upper hand in conflict management 
Taking back to the authority of the State in Egypt July, we will find it has gone through more than one stage; the sense that the power relations which have changed successively since 1952 until 1970, the dawn coup, which occurred in July 1952 had exceeded its frontiers being transformed from a coup to power, does not convince the creation of a few superficial reforms to re-balance the social system is threatened, but the burden of modernizing and promote a development padded social bias in favor of the many. 
I have spent Abdel Nasser and his family held the whole they are planning this coup and taking into account any unforeseen events, and they know very well what they had to eliminate it: the monarchy corrupt, and the influence of the big men of feudalism and the centers of power which is owned by foreigners everywhere, and the British occupation of the Suez Canal ... Today, the sons of the Egyptians of the Delta clay for the first time since the era of Fraanthm run the helm of their country, and it was necessary for the Authority to develop the basis of political philosophy stems from the reality of the roots of the soil. 
 And then found this same authority has put in front of one road is inevitable walk in it, hit the capitalism of local agricultural, and fought a battle victorious with the old colonialism "vestiges of colonialism and tails of a glamorous," and the period from 1952 until 1956 is the phase of the dominance of vision of the Executive Committee of the Free Officers; For example, in the 
In 1953 showed the system a means of force, it has frozen the political parties and declared that "the Leader of the Revolution, members of the leadership will be walking on the country for the next three years, repeated again and again is that the League is responsible, not just Major General Mohammed Naguib, and then came exactly on the afternoon of June 18, 1953, when stopping for the first time before an audience Abdel Nasser noisy outside Abdeen Palace to announce the abolition of the monarchy in the world, and Egypt since the moment the Republic President Mohamed Naguib, and that a deputy. 
 In July 1954 the negotiations between the Free Officers and the British to evacuate the Suez Canal, and then reached to a compromise under which the evacuation of the army, leaving the base token civilian-run British contractors, and has been the signing of the Treaty of evacuation in the July 27, 1954, and became effective since October 19, 1954. 
  "Then came the next phase, the phase of an ideological wing of Nazareth, who was able leader, Gamal Abdel Nasser, said that the shifting of the representatives of the advocacy of democracy (the right and the highway together - Mohammed Najib representative of the first, and Khalid Mohiuddin and Joseph Friend of representatives of the second), and soon Nasser - also called Western - The shift from the governor of Egypt to the leader of the Arabs, and then changed the power relations in the Revolutionary Command Council and tomorrow Abdul victory over his power, enabling freedom of movement and freedom to implement his ideas. " 
If this study can not do Pthguib to changes in the authority of the state and transformations in Egypt, it would suffice to confirm a number of things; Firstly: that the state apparatus in Egypt, the role of non-traditional, both in subjection to colonialism, or resistance, and supports this role and confirmed his power after he Abd Nasser and his colleagues demolition of the old state apparatus part; The officers resorted July to offset the elements that they believed Tgayerhm in the situation class, action-oriented political and ideological, and they fill the organs of the State military elements, as they have developed many devices such as media and culture, and have also introduced a style bureaucratic way associated with the state and political strategy, such as the National, and the Socialist Union. 
Second: the authority of faith in July the need to develop the society through the state apparatus, and the isolation of the Libyan initiatives whatever direction, which may be due to the traditional fear of these masses, and a reluctance to indulge in their movement, despite the rhetoric that people talk about the leader 
And the people of the teacher. This may be due to the heritage of the Egyptian ruling on the authority of the individual, and which elements of which leaked to the present, and restore the ideology in the argument of the "tyrant fair", and supported by the nature of the military training of the ruling bureaucracy. In any case, it is interesting that one of the constants of July and the authority of political thought is the confiscation of the other view, and create devices conquer mediate between them and the rest of the layers of the country and groups. The third of these matters; Fajas reference to the existence of what might be called the relative independence of the state apparatus in Egypt / July classes of capital and international capital. This has been achieved relative independence at home through - first - vocational training and cultural officers, who are descended - at the level of growing up - of the categories of interfaces and intermediate differentiated, and were able - in Sirorthm social - who have risen mediated access to the military institution that holds financial situation and the relevance of social more distinctive for many of the other categories, as well as the nature of the institution that they belong to - Second - nationalization, which has played July Egyptianization power of foreign capital, and the tendency to militarization of the state and its institutions of security, media and local administration

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