27‏/03‏/2011

Algeria....1

















Algeria

Democratic People's Republic of Algeria
  
Algiers (city)
The largest capital city
Official language Arabic
Label Algerian population
System of government is republican
Legislative Algerian parliament
- Supreme Council of the Algerian Council of the Nation
- The lower chamber of the Algerian National People's Assembly
Independence
- France on July 5, 1962
Space
Total 2,381,741 km 2
919 595 square miles
Population
- Signed in February 2011 37,012,103
- Population Density 14.0 / km 2
37.9 / sq mi
GDP estimate in 2010
(Purchasing power parity)
- Total 241 000 000 000
- $ 16.100 per capita
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
- Total $ 159.669 billion
- $ 4.478 per capita currency Algerian Dinar (DZD)


Algeria, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Algeria, an Arab country located in the northwest of the African continent, bordering the north on the Mediterranean Sea and is bordered to the east, Tunisia and Libya to the south of Mali and Niger to the west by Morocco and Western Sahara and Mauritania.

Dubbed the country of one and a half million martyrs proportion to the number of martyrs of the revolution of national liberation, which lasted 7 years and a half.

Algeria is a founding member in the Arab Maghreb Union in 1988, the member of the League of Arab States and Organization of the United Nations since its independence, and a member of the Organization of African Unity, OPEC and many global and regional institutions.

Algeria is the second largest African country and an Arab in terms of area, after Sudan, and atheist tenth globally

Historical sources say that bin Belkin Ministers of the founder of the Zirid, while laying the foundations of his capital in 960 on the ruins of the city ROMANIAN Icosiom (Icosium) dubbed Algeria Mzgnp built due to the presence of four small islands, not far from the sea off the coast of the city. This was confirmed by Muslim geographers such as al-Hamwi and Sapphire Idrisi.

Ottomans are from Algeria, was named on all of the name derived by the country's capital

Varied terrain between the coastal strip in the north, two series of the Atlas Mountains and centered in the high plateaus, and vast desert to the south.

Hill: In the north, and along the Mediterranean coast, stretching plains hill Algerian introduced variable (from 80 to 190 km) and includes most of the agricultural lands of Algeria and the concentration of high population density.
The high plateaus and the Saharan Atlas: distributed hills 600 km east of the Moroccan border, the territory of Sahbip, zigzag, between the hill and Saharan Atlas. Height between 1100 and 1300 meters up from the West to descend gradually toward the east, about 400 km. Sedimentary soils, the effects of carving mountains, with salt lakes.
File: Milokk64a6fa9.jpg
K Almilq Alogoatitloha belt problem of 3 mountain ranges, the mountains of limitations on the borders of Morocco, Mountain Amour, then the children of the mountains of southern Algeria Nile. Falls in the mountains and a multitude of premium compared to the rainy hills, fertile land is gently, but the waters of these mountains is absent in the desert, and are thus an important resource of groundwater in the oases, the Northern Line of the Algerian Sahara. Biskra, Laghouat, Bashar, cities located in the region.

This belt is also credited with keeping the north-east winter cold and snowy.

North East: east of Algiers is a mountain basins and plains. Different from the west of the country being a non-parallel to the coast. The southern part of: the shelf, the Aures Heights, which played a historic role since Roman times. North adjacent to the small tribes isolated from the major parties to the hill and valley Alsomam. Coast, then a mountain, and very little flat land in Bejaia, Skikda, Annaba.
Algerian Sahara: Desert stretches south of the Atlas alone represent more than 80% of the total area of ​​Algeria. Not all sand, but composed of rocky hills and plains dotted with stone Rmlitan two areas (western Great race and race the Great Eastern) and which represent the vast tracts of sand dunes. In the Hoggar, near Tamanrasset (wilaya of Tamanrasset) reside in the country's highest peak, a summit which Tahat height of 3303 meters.
Contains the northern part of the many oases, the most famous oasis Onfosp, and Ouargla, and Hassi Messaoud in the south-east.
There are no rivers permanent flow in Algeria, but the valleys as Wadi Chlef is the longest (725 km from the Saharan Atlas of the Mediterranean Sea) are filled with water in the winter, then dry into a pasture breeding, or become ponds (closed Alctoot) and the most important of the Shatt al-brood and Mgheig or marshes, such as marsh Oran.

Waterfront of Algeria, near Algosbpmnach Mediterranean to the north, winters are relatively mild and rainy, and temperatures between 21-24 Celsius in summer and 02-12 C in the winter.
Plateaus, the lowest rainfall in the north, snowy winters cold below zero Celsius sometimes. Hot dry summers.
Atmosphere in the south desert, a refreshing nights, bridesmaid degrees above 50 degrees Celsius, carrying winds of Alsiroko (known Balshahyli), also permeate his winter monsoon rains

The rift between the tectonic plates of Africa and Eurasia through the coastal strip Bakelmlh of Dzairiattabr northern Algeria seismic zone is active and is due to the fact that part Achmali of the African continent, especially the northern parts of Algeria and Morocco form the area of ​​convergence then the plate of the African plate Eurasian as slip these Elsafihtan Altaveatan so moving all them in a counter direction to the other direction, talk to earthquakes due to exposure to the forces of rims and payment reduction resulting from the movement of plates Victd frequency gradually, if exceeded should be cracking rocks to get rid of the tense and violent in a way that takes a picture of the earthquake.
It is believed that most of the earthquakes experienced by Algeria are a result of this operation because the limits of friction between the edges of the African and Eurasian plates to the north of Algeria and the exact area covered by a mechanism of friction between the plates extending south into Algerian territory in the form of a rocky launch
Most of the earthquakes that occur in Algeria with a weak force where rare cases come more than a power of 6 degrees of tremor, because most of these aftershocks followed in the aftershock tremors usually have the character of periodic short somewhat. Can be divided into Algerian territory by the degree of seriousness of their vulnerability to earthquakes into four major areas:
The first area: the areas less vulnerable to seismic risk and cover all the States desert: Adrar, Bashar, Ouargla, Illizi, Tindouf, Valley, Ghardaia and Tamanrasset, in addition to Tlemcen.
Region II: and run the risk of earthquakes with low and cover states: Ahras market and whether or residuals and Tebessa and Batna, Khanshalah, Biskra, gas, Djelfa and Tiaret, happy and eggs, Sidi Bel Abbes, ostrich and Laghouat.
Region III: at risk of earthquakes with a medium degree and consists of: El Tarf, Annaba, Guelma and Constantine, Skikda and Jijel, Mila, Setif, Bejaia, Tizi Ouzou, Burj Bu Aririj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Algiers, Medea and Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Relizane, Mostaganem, Camp, Oran and Ain Temouchent.
Region IV: It is the most dangerous areas and most vulnerable to the risk of violent earthquakes, including the states of Chlef and Ain Defla part of the Tipaza.
It is remarkable to note that regions III and IV the most vulnerable to the risk of earthquakes, based the most important cities and economic installations and infrastructure and where the concentration of population and economic very dense and thus the probability of occurrence of heavy shakes these two regions, the consequent onset disasters, human and material sharp very dangerous to the national economy and the safety of the population As in the most serious earthquakes known in the Chlef Algeria (Ami 1954.1980) which requires taking safety measures and prevention to reduce the risks of this natural phenomenon and its negative repercussions on the economy and population.

Located in Algeria, several streams called wadis of irregular normalcy and volatility of the flow of water, concentrated mostly in central and north-east of Algeria, including: Valley Alsomam, Wadi Mzfran, Wadi Sipos, Valley sand, Wadi abstract, and Valley section, and Valley Ahumaiz, the valley was appointed bathroom. It is the largest and the longest is the valley of Chlef, who resides in the north-west with the length of 725 km and in some cases up the flow of water to 1500 ³ / sec, most of which have their origin comes from the Atlas Mountains, colorful embroidery and pour in the Mediterranean Sea.
In the south of the hill, where the valleys are not always flow, and is formed by the salt lakes in desert areas, but temporary for most of them scrape brood and the Shatt al-Sharqi. Valoodip North are in the Mediterranean, while the valleys South stems from the Saharan Atlas and the largest reserve for water in the world, it is called groundwater and is called the layers of water Alpine is estimated that the largest reserves of fresh water in the world, buried under the desert sands of Algeria with a total area estimated at 900. 000 km ² in the region of Adrar, Tamanrasset.
Between the oases, which are part of the hydrological system of the country and include: Gantt, Ghardaia, Ouargla, non Wade, Tamngst, Thblbalp, Timimoun, Touggourt, Tolga, Vlyash, Zaaatcp. Are fed and Sewa Tolga Alziban and water networks in the Aures. Finally, Ogrgar also contains a large amount of groundwater and is docked several projects for the drilling of wells developed to attract water into groundwater, including the draft in favor.
In the Aures East, We have many of the valleys, including: Wade Alobiod, the valley of Abdi, the valley of the Red Valley Taca, marsh Mdgasn, marsh arm Boultif, the Shatt al-Jandali, Wade Mather, the valley of sand in Constantine and the oases in each of the arch and Algovi. There are The region also hot hot springs, such as: the righteous Bouknclp Bath, Bath Almsgutin Bakalmp, Wade is nearing the state market Ahras

Map basin energy Aldzairtemtlk Algeria precautions Taqoip and mining is one of the largest in the world. It is located generally in the south, according to Algeria's Sonatrach, 67% of the reserves of oil and gas in Hassi Messaoud and Wadi Mya. Gas in Hassi sand and oil in Hassi Messaoud, Illizi contain 14% of the bench and the rest is distributed in several areas. Are Alboukt for oil and gas in: Hassi Messaoud, Hassi sand, he was appointed Omnas, Rord news, Tin Feuillé Tapennekort, harsh term, Hassi Berkin, Rhode boys Fri, Tuat, harsh, Saleh was appointed.
Mining activity in Algeria is very diverse, there are more than 30 metal used in various human needs, including: iron, salt, zinc, lead, barite, marble, tungsten, gold and precious metals Kalolmas, precious stones and rare metals. Iron resides in each of the astrologers Ouenza and Bokhaddrp, Khanqat common Tmazirt, Beni Saf. The largest mine in terms of reserves there are in the cave of Ajabilat, which was discovered in 1957 east of Tindouf and mine Mishri Abdul Aziz (35 billion tons of iron). In the Hoggar no 173.000 tons of gold ore in the astrologers Tirak and Omsmasp and who produce 18 g / ton. The mineral barite contains a precaution is equal to 40.000 tons, which is extracted from the astrologers Ain Mimoun Bouknclp and Boukaid Ptismcilt. The lead and zinc they extracted from the mines of the north the most important of mine, Mr. Kember is in Skikda and appointed Babar near Annaba, and mine Abid, near the border of Morocco and Tlemcen valley Zinder, as well as mine Alonhres South Chlef, Mount catheter b Ulama and mine bead Joseph Setif. Bentonite is extracted from the astrologers relatives of singer and Mostaganem. Algeria has a large amount of salt to the large number of lakes and salt Alctoot estimated one billion tons. The phosphate is concentrated Bmndjemi Mount Alkwyv neck, which is estimated in the first one billion tons of reserves and the thickness of between 5 and 30 CE. Uranium mining is concentrated in the Hoggar .. also includes the country's large reserves of gypsum and limestone and sand and mud and Aldlomt and cement in the north of the country.

The population of Algeria 35.6 one million according to the results of Statistics January 2009 and most of them descended Mnarab and Amazigh.

Education in Algeria compulsory from age 6 to 16 years, while the literacy rate of 10% only at independence, has grown to become 90% at the end of 2009, which is one of the most important successes of the previous and current governments.

Allowed education compulsory elimination to a large extent of illiteracy that prevailed earlier among women is a special, which resulted in raising the marriage age, and work indirectly to family planning, but the quality of the remainder of the properties of third world countries, where the prevailing culture of memorization, and memorization, and then Ruminating, instead of developing the talents of reading, and scientific research. This is what the state tried to get rid of their experience of education systems as a LMD.

Education is free and compulsory in Algeria. University students receive a quarterly bonus in addition to providing accommodation and food free of charge to students the rules of procedure

Algeria are available on one of the largest economies in Africa, with an estimated national income in Algeria with 120 billion dollars.

The political system in Algeria republican democratic in nature, constitution, has also been since 1990, adoption of multi-party system.

Algeria officially differentiate between the three branches: executive, legislative and judicial. In general, entrusted to the president and the executive functions of working on the application of laws, enacted by the Algerian parliament, while separating the judiciary in civil and criminal provisions.

Historically, the legacy of the past cause of political weight now, For years, one-party rule without accountability military, aggressively against the semi-bourgeois (Farhat Abbas, Abane Ramadan ...) and when the shocks the economy in the eighties, that the failure of the military, and to make matters worse, political confusion, and then humanitarian crisis, it was always behind in the first policy Boumediene ruling

Vary Tbua music in Algeria, according to aspects of the country and age groups.

Popular music: the kind that usually draws voice of Andalusian music of Algeria during 1920. And is characterized by a specific pattern of rhythms, Algerian Arabic dialect. Master of this music is still the undisputed Hajj Muhammad El Anka and Haj Mrizk and Boudjemaa Anqays and Beji and Hashemi Karoabi and Kabi Abdel-Rahman, Kamal and Omar Bourdib bubblegum and Abdelkader peoples and Dahmane Harrachi and many others, and is famous for its center of the country.
Ksentini familiar pattern: the proportion of the city of Constantine, Mohamed Tahar Alfrghani is one of the most famous singers in this style, as well as Sheikh Abd al-Mu'min ibn Tobal. Unusual and Annabi proportion of the city of Annaba is another style is both Sheikh (Hassan Annabi) and (Theeb Ayashi), Hamdi of the most famous Lebanese singers of this style.
Algerian Andalusian music: Classical music is a style that brought with Andalusian refugees who had fled the Inquisition and Christian kings in the Horn of atheist ten to the Maghreb. And grown in the northern areas in Algeria, and this music is characterized by advanced technology and research that focuses primarily on long bout 12 "wing," and its key instruments are the mandolin, violin and lute and guitar, zither, flute and piano. Among the renowned artists of this style is Forgiving, Sheikh Haji Mohammad, Abdul-Karim, Mohamed Daly Bedjaoui and Nasreddin Chaoli and Larbi Ben Sari, Nuri al-Kufi and the virtue of Aldsirip as well as musicals Kamahdip conductivity and Alvforeigp and Sindosip and Andalusia.
Music tribal: singing Tamazight is on the basis of ammunition rich hair and is made of stories are very old which were issued through the generations thanks to oral tradition too old. Some of the songs Taaj theme of exile and love, politics, etc., and months Magneha: Sheikh Hasnawi, Slimane Azem, Kamal Hamadi, Sheriff Khaddam , Ait Mnqlat, Eder, Kamal Messaoudi, Lounes damaged, Massa Bochavp, and Takfarins.
Music Chaoui: and pioneered by Sheikh Issa Jermoni who sang Balouperet in Paris Rabainat and Sheikh Ali Knhley and Haj Borkap unit Kncp and now Abu Zaher, music Naili a musical mountain purely a variety of different areas Aloorazalnmamcp and high plateaus, a representative of the various singers Alohoracin without forgetting the artist able Cacho, who gave Chaouia dimension to the song great.
Cheb Khaled artist music Alrayamoosaqy modern: widely available in Algeria, the most famous of Rai music, which came to a global a typical pattern of western Algeria, and in particular, Oran, Sidi Bel Abbes and take this pattern evolution since the seventies to add modern equipment Kagheitar electric, drums and synthesizer, and was also influenced by the style of Western music such as rock, reggae The most famous is Magneha Cheb Khaled, who delivers it to stardom and international, as well as Cheb Hasni & Cheb Mami and Cheb Bilal and Cheb Faudel and Rachid Taha, and we saw Ray and Zahouania. There is also a rap style reactor, which is a new method in Algeria and is growing significantly with the emergence of groups like the Lotfi Double Kanon, or PSV, Antique, Hama Boyce (boys Alhama).
In addition to the singers sing in Arabic Alvsahp Kalphenanp large Queen Tarab Arab Warda and Ababsp Fella.

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