26‏/03‏/2011

State of Morocco










State of Morocco 


A country located in the far west of North Africa with its capital and largest city of Rabat, Casablanca, which is considered the economic capital, and most important cities: Fez, Marrakech, Meknes, Tangier, Agadir, Tetouan, and Jeddah. Morocco overlooking the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean in the west flanking the Strait of Gibraltar; bounded on the eastern Algeria (dispute over the Moroccan border with Algeria) and to the south of Mauritania. In the tape, the narrow sea separating Morocco and Spain 3 Moktnvat Spanish are: Ceuta, Melilla, and the rock of Comair. 
Morocco is a member of the United Nations since 1956, the League of Arab States since 1958, the International Olympic Committee since 1959, the Organization of the Islamic Conference since 1969, the International Organization of la Francophonie since 1981, the Arab Maghreb Union since 1989, the Group of Mediterranean Dialogue since 1995, the Group of Seventy-seven since 2003, the organization NATO ally outside the president since 2004, and the Union for the Mediterranean in 2008. 
And Morocco are the only African country that is not a member of the African Union replaced the Organization of African Unity, which withdrew from Morocco in 1984 due to its refusal to recognize its sovereignty over Western Sahara, but it has a special place in the Union: take advantage of the services offered by the countries of the Union, as a group African Bank for development. 2008 grant of the European Union to Morocco advanced status in the Association Agreements and the neighborhood, which would enable Morocco to participate in some European agencies. On March 7, 2010, held in Granada, the first joint summit between the European Union and Morocco. 
Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with a parliament to be elected. King retains executive powers and wide. 2007 parliamentary elections monitored by international observers for the first time in Morocco. Nevertheless, the attendance rate election was only 37% of the total electorate, Alrabhan main in this election are the SPLM and the Constitutional Union, both liberal party, as has the opposition represented by the Justice and Development Party, a right-wing party a modest increase in the number of deputies as did the Party of Progress and Socialism, a leftist party. On September 19, 2007 Abbas El Fassi fill of the Independence Party as First Minister of the Kingdom of Morocco. 


Morocco was known in ancient times, penalized several civilizations are as follows: 
Prehistoric civilizations: Civilization Alacolip (700.000 years BC), civilization Amoostirip (120.000 years BC), civilization Alaatirip (40.000 years BC), civilization Aliebrmaurizip (21.000 years BC). 
Civilizations of the classical age: the Phoenician civilization (twelfth century BC), the Punic civilization (fifth century BC), civilization Moritanip (second century BC), the Romanian civilization (the first century AD). 
The impact of Morocco considerable influence in the region of the Maghreb and Andalusia, where he formed the first Islamic countries that gained independence from the Umayyad dynasty after the revolution of the Berbers and the establishment of Idris bin Abdullah of the Kingdom of Morocco Aloqsysnp 788. Most of the strains came from the Moroccan Sahara and settled within the borders of Morocco current putting in some capital cities of countries with a wide geographical area. Morocco is the only country in North Africa that have not come under the flag Ottoman Empire, which has two attempts to occupy the city of Fez, the first year in 1554 ended in a revolution Ohlipwalthanip year 1576 during its intervention in a dispute over power among the sultans of Morocco completed its withdrawal through negotiation were then build a collar defense to protect the latter from attacks and secure the eastern border in the final year 1582. 
From the legislative side, although the succession system usually involves the application of Islamic law, but it was not in fact agree on the written laws and subject to change in the future governing civil relations and legal areas that have enjoyed a great deal of autonomy, these constitutions are recorded in the schools antique vary relatively region of Morocco to the other, this organization played an important role in controlling the balances in the General within the community, especially during weak central authority or lack thereof in the event of a dispute over power. 
In the early twentieth century, after the failure of reforms that aimed to modernize the state and many of the economic problems and internal crises forced Sultan Abdul Hafiz of the signing of the Treaty of Fez, in spite of retaining Morocco symbols of sovereignty Kalamlp and the national flag, but that the treaty allowed European countries to intervene economic, political, indirectly, the laws that were proposed by the last were not entered into force only after approval by the Sultans of Morocco, who had the right to reject it. continued protection of 44 years during which the construction of many of the facilities necessary for the modern state, got the State reiterated its independence in 1956, and the recovery of Tarfaya and Tan Tan (1958), Sidi Ifni (1969) and the Western Sahara (1975). 

«Grand Palace - Kingdom of Morocco», in the side in small print: «in the Barbary Coast» 
In the first century BC, established a Berber kingdom on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, known as the Kingdom of Moritunaip relative to the word Moros Greek, which means black, this kingdom was divided in 40 to Moritunaip Tngep in northern Morocco and Moritunaip caesarean section in the north of Algeria; become a label that currently on the Islamic Republic Mauritania. Later reference was made to the Kingdom of Morocco Morocco on behalf of the current maximum in Arabic, while Romance languages ​​used labels derived from the Latin word which Merck Tsahev name the capital of Marrakech Dynasty stationed. 
  

25 centimes Morocco for the year 1924, the label appears in Arabic, "the Moroccan State" side to the label alphabet Latin "Empire Sharifian." 
I think people in the ancient world that the sun rises from Japan (in Chinese Nihon: Place of sunrise) and sets in the Kingdom of Morocco (in Arabic Morocco: the place of sunset). The Arab historians of the Middle Ages using the word Maghreb to denote the three regions located in the region Maghreb: Morocco Near (African or Tunisia), the central Maghreb (Algeria, current), the maximum Morocco (Kingdom of Morocco current). 
During the definition for themselves, the sense of belonging among individuals tends usually to one of the regions (sometimes tribes) in which they live and which are in other regions as the Moroccan State; of the sovereign state was divided into the country store (the regions that were paid taxes under the rule of direct Sultans of Morocco) and the country Saybah areas that were the tribal organization runs its own affairs and the influence of the central authority in which the influence of mere formality. 
At the beginning of the seventeenth century was "the Kingdom of Morocco" is made up of five regions: the Kingdom of Marrakech, Kingdom of Fez, Kingdom of Sus, Sgelmasp Kingdom, and the country's shield. In addition to the many dependent territories such as those that were occupied after the battle with the Empire Songhai Tundibi year 1591. 
In modern times, and starting from the mid-seventeenth century historians Europeans use the name "Empire of Morocco", which also encountered strain Alawites governing Morocco since then; sometimes been referred to the State as the "Sultanate of Morocco," derived from the title of Sultan, who was called the ruler or the "Empire Sharifian" in relation to the influence of the honorable in the regions. 
The Mohammed V, the organization of the modern state and adopted the title of King in 1957 to become the "Kingdom of Morocco" is the most common label, which was also adopted during the drafting of the Moroccan Constitution in 1962. 
Morocco was settled by humans present since the Neolithic period, since about 8000 years BC, and I knew then the civilization that arose in those respects, Alqbesip civilization, and in that era was the Maghreb region is much less right than it is today. At a later period, established a Berber kingdom on the shores of the Mediterranean known as the Kingdom of Moritunaip. 
Morocco to open its doors wider for countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, when trade flourished and the Phoenicians established colonies of them in various Mediterranean countries. Both the stun, Lexus, and Essaouira, the most important and the first Phoenician colonies established in Morocco, has remained the last Phoenician colony until the sixth century BC. 
Took control of the empire ROMANIAN after a few centuries to all areas where he founded the Phoenicians colonies, so the emperors dividing their empire to the provinces and in many ways, of which province Moritunaip Tngep, which included the northern part of Morocco current in this period, Morocco has open an important trade on the Mediterranean . Year 285, the Romanian administration has abandoned all areas south of the city of Lexus, except for tuberculosis and Essaouira. In the fall of the Empire ROMANIAN been parts of Morocco's current Vindal are of Germanic tribes east, then to the Visigoths, Varom Byzantines. However, during this time, but most of the mountainous regions of Morocco is independent of any state or empire, and subject to local leaders of the Amazigh. Christian missionaries came to Morocco during the second century, and received acceptance of this religion among the inhabitants of towns and some of the slaves and peasants. 

Umayyad Caliphate began to expand during the seventh century, in the year 670, the Arab leader to open Uqba the Maghreb and its annexation to the Umayyad dynasty. Many Arabs settled in Morocco and brought with them their values, customs and traditions, and they spread Islam among the Berbers, who have accepted their majorities and Atakdhu him have them. And some who came from the Arabian Peninsula, establishing kingdoms and independent principalities of their own, Salih I ibn Mansur, who founded the Kingdom of Nkur and spread Islam among the inhabitants of the region, after the wars and many battles in many cases. Foundations Adarissa the Kingdom of Morocco Al-Aqsa year 788. 
Was the founder of Sire Idrisid Idris bin Abdullah Al-Aqsa solution, Morocco signed a fugitive from a trap near Mecca in 786, he settled city of Volubilis where Europeanization Amazigh tribe embraced and supported him even created his own. Able to include all of the Tamesna, Vezzaz and Tlemcen. Moulay Idris I, was assassinated Bmkidp plotted the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid and the poisoned perfume carried out. Failures of his son, Idris II, after reaching the age of twelve. The latter built the city of Fez as the extension of its influence on the whole of Morocco. 
  
Moulay Mohammed Sharif, Emperor of Morocco, King of Fez and Sus » 

After the fall of the dynasty Adarissa, appeared States Almoravids, Unitarians, Marinids, Saadians, the control of Morocco respectively, in these covenants, after a century atheist century, flourished the country and has emerged as a major power in north-west Africa, after it ruled most aspects of that region of the world and vast areas of Andalusia. Escaped many of the Muslims and Jews in Morocco after the wars carried out by the Christian Spanish kingdoms to retrieve the country from the hands of Muslims, known as the wars of recovery. After Saadian appeared to inherit the Alawite dynasty ruled the country, Morocco was in the era of Alawite kingdom rich despite the fact that its borders were relatively smaller in comparison with previous periods. 
In 1684 recovered Sultan Ismail bin Ali Al-Sharif from the English city of Tangier, and began to work to unite all the cities in the Kingdom of Morocco and one, despite opposition from some tribes. Morocco was one of the first countries that recognized the United States as an independent state in 1787. At the beginning of the American Revolution, the merchant ships of the United States are often exposed to attacks by Barbary pirates in the Atlantic Ocean, Sultan Mohammed III declared that all U.S. commercial vessels are protected by the Sultanate and it will be protected when you sail the territorial waters of Morocco. The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship concluded in December 1777 of the oldest continuous friendship treaties concluded by the United States. 
Starting from the 18 th century seemed to Morocco unable to keep pace with developments and the industrial revolution in the countries of Western Europe, the central government tried to do many of the reforms in the 19 th century resulted in failure, and deterioration of the internal situation in Morocco to accept the protection of the European signing of the Treaty of Fez in 1912, the most prominent of these reforms: 
Financial reforms: the state of Trustees appointed in marinas and imposed strict surveillance to combat bribery and embezzlement, has also tried to increase the value of national currency and control and prevent the smuggling abroad. 
Educational reforms: the Moroccan State was established in Salé modern school to receive a modern sciences and earmarked grants and rewards for outstanding students, and student missions sent to Europe. 
Military reforms: the state sent the Moroccan student missions to Western Europe to follow up on military training and worked on the purchase of modern weapons and the construction of weapons factory in Fez 
Morocco imposed on the type of protection, made the territory under the control of France and Spain, according to what was decided at the Green Island on 7 April 1906, has provided this protection to colonial countries participating in the conduct of Morocco while retaining some of the sovereignty and national symbols. France sent its army to Casablanca in August 1907, and ended up with Sultan to accept the treaty of protection in March 3, 1912. And then became Spain spheres of influence in northern Morocco, in the countryside, and the south, in Ifni and Tarfaya. In 1923 Tangier became an international zone. The rest of the regions in Morocco were under the control of France. Many Moroccans served in the French army during World War I and II, and the Spanish national army during the Spanish Civil War. 
On November 18, 1927, Snatch, King Mohammed V to the throne at the age of eighteen, whose refusal of foreign interventions and provided the request for cancellation of the Treaty of Fez (presentation of the Declaration of Independence on January 11, 1944), to the strained relations with the public accommodation French had in 1953 exiled with the royal family outside of Morocco, Madagascar, the thing which some considered a transgression of the accord which was concluded on November 27, 1912 after the signing of the Treaty of Fez, where each of the countries, "the commitment of respect for the Empire Sharifian," and broke out in Morocco, the so-called revolution, the king and the people. France allowed Mohammed V to return to his country in 1955, and the following year on his return, began the negotiations between Morocco and France, which led to the independence of the country at the end. 
Morocco regained sovereignty over the areas under Spanish rule through agreements with Spain between 1956 and 1958. There have been a few attempts at a military to recover some of the Spanish colonies, but were not hugely successful. Returned the city of Tangier, which has been internationalized after the signing of the Protocol Tangier in Morocco on 29 October 1956. Hassan II, sat on the throne as king of Morocco in March 3, 1961, and in December 1962 was approved by referendum on the constitution makes the first of the regime in Morocco, a constitutional monarchy. Returned the region which formed the Spanish province of Ifni to Morocco in 1969. Annexed the Western Sahara the Moroccan government in the country during the seventies, after he called for Spain to give them up and re-integration into Morocco since independence, but that the issue of this region is still unresolved to this day. 
Regime in Morocco is a constitutional monarchy, social-democratic, and King has extensive powers, it can be resolved and the government published the army, in addition to the enjoyment of many other powers. Government allows the existence of opposition political parties, where many established in previous years. Sitting prime minister, or prime minister, at the head of the Moroccan government and multi-party system. [75] Government exercises executive power and shares legislative power with the sub-Parliament, the Council of Representatives and the House of Councilors. Moroccan Constitution provides for an independent judiciary to face legislative and executive branches. 
The Constitution gives the king broad powers; King recalled according to the Constitution as "the faithful and the Supreme Representative of the nation and the symbol of unity and guarantor of the time and the eternity, which is the protector of religion and ensure the respect for the Constitution, with maintenance of the rights and freedoms of citizens, groups and bodies, a guarantor of the country's independence and the possession of the Kingdom within its borders the true ". King chairs the Council of Ministers, a Prime Minister is appointed after the legislative elections, and the latter's request the appointment of members of the government. Although the Constitution grants the right of the king to dismiss ministers and dissolving both houses of Parliament or one after consultation with the Chairman of each of them and the President of the Council Constitutional and direct address to the nation, this did not happen only once in 1965. 
Moroccan Parliament consists of two chambers, the House of Representatives and the Council of Advisers. Elected members of Parliament by direct universal suffrage for five years; and outgoing at the opening of the October session of the fifth year following the election of the Council. Council is composed of 325 members. The upper house consists of 270 members elected for a term of nine years shall be elected three fifths on each side of the Kingdom by an electoral college composed of representatives of local groups, and the remaining two-fifths shall be elected by electoral colleges composed of elected members of professional chambers and an electoral college composed of representatives of wage earners. 

Morocco decline in the order of the United Nations index of human development as the three points moved to the rank of 130 out of 177 countries classified as a United Nations report on human development for the year 2008 to 2009 Morocco among countries with medium human development index but less than the global average. States were classified according to four indicators of vehicles, including average age, education level, the level of per capita income and the distribution of wealth. 
Despite the high rate of age in Morocco for more than 70 years, this rate is still less than rates of the ages in developed countries, as well as indicators related to child and maternal health where it is still a concern and a source of a negative impact on human development in the country, where some believe that the country has not yet reached best to deal with diseases prevalent in poor countries, in addition to that, it remains to enter the medical services is inadequate and uneven. The situation Alttbibip units and hospitals has been oscillating between stability and decline. 
Despite the efforts of the State addressed to combat the scourge of poverty and reduction of the unit was able to reduce its rate from 50% in 1960 to 14,2% in 2007, but that, in view of demographic growth, the absolute number of poor people settled in five million, of whom three quarters of the poor are found in rural areas. 
Morocco is a multi in its national, demographic, linguistic, cultural, embraced this country throughout its history a lot of human elements coming both from the east, such as the Phoenicians, Sephardic Jews and Arabs, or from the south, Kalovarqp coming from South of the Sahara, or the North, Kroman, Vandals, and the Jews Europeans. The components are all humanity and the impact on the ethnic composition and social, which is now featuring versatile nationally, where the mixed Arab Levant and Andalusia Balomazig who make up the majority, and the Africans, who make up the minority, and religious remains Islam is the official religion, the most widespread in the country, with a Okulaitin Jewish and Christian. 
Morocco also includes a number of World Heritage Sites, which features the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO candidature to be included in the program of international heritage sites. Each site of the Heritage sites belong to the state which is located within its borders, but it gets the attention of the international community to make sure you keep it for future generations. Common to all Member States to the Convention and the 180 state in maintaining these sites and Morocco, which accounts for many of them: 

Morocco is the fourth Arab countries, the most populous, after Egypt, Sudan, and Algeria. Most Moroccans are Sunni Muslims. There are minorities, known as the Black Moor and Gnawa. The number of Jews in Morocco up to 265,000 people in 1948, but now that it has declined to about 5,500 people (about 0.2% of the total population) because of migration of many of them to Israel and Europe. Most of the foreigners residing in Morocco are French and Spaniards, and before independence the country was home to nearly half a million European settlers from France and Spain. 
Home to France, the largest proportion of Moroccans outside their home country, where it is said that there are more than a million in that country, Morocco, Spain, followed by about 700,000 people, there is also a large Moroccan communities in the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, and Canada. 
The number of the Moroccan population, a significant increase, rising during the period between the years 1960 and 1982 to 11,626,000 people, representing an increase rate of 2.8% per year. According to Statistics December 2, 1994, the total number of the Moroccan population 26,073,717 people, while this number according to the 2004 census to 29.840.273 million, including 51.435 foreign, mostly French and Spanish and often settled in Tangier. 
The estimated annual increase of about 2.6%, a percentage decrease in comparison with those observed in the period between the years 1971 and 1982, which amounted to 2.8%. Population is distributed according to the center of residence to 13,415,659 people, Urban Ocean, the ratio of 51.4%, and 12,658,058 people in rural areas, the ratio of 48.6%. 
The ancient city of Tetouan 
Lexus archaeological site 
Zieles archaeological site 
Forged archaeological site 
The historic city of Meknes 
Cultural space of the Djemaa el Fna 
City Tan Tan 

Tourism occupies the lead in the services sector, which generated over the country as of 59 billion dirhams (8.16 billion dollars) in 2007 and visited the country with 7,407,617 million tourists estimated to rise by about 13% compared with the previous year, which is estimated at about 16,893,803 for the night. Marrakech is a tourist city first, followed by the city of Agadir and cities: Tangier, Casablanca, Fez, Ouarzazate, Rabat, Tetouan, Meknes and Essaouira. Morocco is a member of the Council by Dr Peter Piot of the World Tourism Organization, since the corresponding International Tourism organized by the World Tourism Organization, between 23 and September 29, 2007 City Qirtajna located in northern Colombia, where the choice of Morocco on 26 September 2007 as a new member for a period of 4 years of the Executive Council of the organization. Morocco has been proposed as a party to the Committee on Statistics of the Tourism satellite account of the Executive Board because of his experience in the field of studies and research on the contribution of tourism to the gross domestic product. 


















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