24‏/03‏/2011

Women's movements .. and the role of women in society


Women did not have before with the Egyptian national movement of modern voice rising demands, but the back of a woman's voice finally and wrote many societies women's emancipation and women's magazines, .. 

Since the Islamic religion in order to settle the sexes among other things (no doubt that education is one of them) for these reasons that urge the government and parliament, the press and the fact that reform students Iwazaronna in this section, which is the first reforms to begin. Does not prevent us exchange our concern to the education of the claim of women's rights trampled, and we do not ask for this heresy, but we demand our rights which are recognized by the religion and the right, are: 
1. Msawat gender in education and open the doors of higher education and exams for those interested in other girls, to encourage the genius of her particular talents (We can not fail said Madame Curie discovered radium quotes on the genius of women) and facilitate the gain to those who need them and lift the level of general mental in the country. 
2. A lot of high school for girls district capitals and centers and so on. 
3. Separate the management of the education of girls for the education of boys (as detailed monitoring of primary education for primary education on the similarities between them). 
4. Bring experiences on Education of women replace men in all branches of female education and control gradually so as not to remain one of the men at the end of a certain time because they know the girl and need more attention to ensuring it. 
5. Amend the election law the involvement of women with men in the right to vote, even if restrictions in the next round such as a requirement of education or to pay the minimum threshold is set to the king, and be fair to object to the involvement of this class of women in particular and the election law makes the man illiterate and free from the king a right to elect and be elected - It is not reasonable nor fair and the majority of 

Men as well as deprive women with advanced conditions of Almsawapbmthel this audience of men, and it is not fair to subject women to the legislation and its effects Etjran They are half the social without having their opinion on the situation. 
6. The reform of scientific laws of the marital relationship and make it applicable to exactly what the spirit of the religion of justice and promote peace between the families and the provisions of the ASEAN family, however, that enacted a law banning polygamy is only for the damage if the wife is infertile or sick disease that prevents it from performing its function of marriage, and in these cases must prove that the Coroner. Also should enact a law that does not need absolute Wife called only before the judge and the judge upon the legitimate treatment success in the presence of the rule of his family and the rule of the people before granting the divorce in accordance with the text of the Sharia law. 
7. Work with foreign countries to gain the consent as legal provisions which make maintenance and enforceable wherever convict him, even if in a foreign land. 
These are the demands advocated by the Egyptian women represented in the Assembly of the Union Women and the Commission Delegation central for women. It is noted that reference Almsawappin islamic men and women in the first place, where so called religion. There is no doubt that women have simplified the national demands, which is seeking to achieve them men, and they showed a national home and know the rights of these rights to their dearest rights of women. 
Then she had chosen particular social reform on its own rights: note that the rights of women more easily to achieve the country succeeded in the political field, as far as play in the literary field. 
It was the Egyptian woman in the women's moderate demands satisfied. Whatever we were as exacting in the customs and traditions, it is my duty to know - all those who need to know - that put the barriers and the creation of factors between men and women in fields such as stints by men of commerce, medicine, education, law firm, but is contraindications doomed to demolition is inevitable. 
If it was easy to detain wives who have seen them into lust and luggage or into student and amiable servers - it is not easy that we begin to separate male and female doctor and staff member and teacher and a lawyer for the man in her career or her career. 
Add to this that higher education for women who do not bear fruit unless you test it in an atmosphere of intense research and scientific debate, and enacted the method makes sense in the debate, and men in the Old 

This, women need to be strongly Istalin competition, is essential for their struggle until they feel the pleasure of knowing and even dead Ihieddin kind talent that prisoners have spent for so doomed them to extinction. 
  According to a fourth item on the requirement of finding the parameters replace teachers, that this request does not agree with Almsawapalty pursued by women; as this Almsawaptqdy to have the right to education of the superior of both sexes, then beat a woman in the articles and proven Nbogha and adequacy do not mind that the benefit of male science students from the teaching of this genius. 
It is also not useful for the students that they received from a woman sex lessons - if it is proved that a man is better not to carry certificates of seminars will be in the girls he can get it of course, but since A and what is famous by the accuracy of research and erudition and adequacy of teaching. 
It is clear that the woman was like the whole nation and the whole world, has evolved in the following years developed significant and surprising and agreeable. Become worthy of him more than Hatek demands. 
The women's share in the movement of the general strike on November 15, 1930, wrote a newspaper says, "but we say Dart government because they know such as what we know that women as they arose in the field of employment is no longer the power in the world, able to destroy them, or to repel the work that contributes to the for success (). 
The importance of phase from 1923 until 1952 and "politically" 
At the opening of the first Egyptian parliament after independence in 1924 under permit February 28, 1922, and the Constitution of 1923, gathered thousands of women without the veil at the entrance to the Council, carriers of the banners wrote: 
"We demand equality of the sexes in education," "Teach your daughters, and respected the rights of your wives" and "We demand the cancellation of reservations to independence." 
It is the first time in the history of modern Egypt, which are recorded of women such as this political situation, and states that Ms. / Hoda Shaarawi resigned from the Supreme Wafd, the Wafd Party, due to the reluctance in responding to the demands of the Egyptian women's movement and formed the "Union 

Egyptian Women. "I have seen this stage an increase in the number of women's associations and protest against such decisions of the colonial province of English goods. 
The work was extended to demand independence for Egypt, Sudan and Palestine, along with social objectives such as women's education and political rights and a personal status law. Was to contribute in the establishment of Arab Women's Union in 1944, from the roles of the Egyptian Union mission, and also participated Hoda Shaarawi and a large delegation from the Union in more than a women's conference hosted by Women's Federation International exhibitors issue of their country, and raising the problem of prostitution and privileges of foreign, which impede the efforts being made in Egypt. 
Responded International Women's Union to this appeal and sent (Mrs. Corbett Ashby) President of the Federation International Women's telegram to the Conference of the abolition of privileges of foreign in which she says (International Women's Union for political equality and civil rights between men and women recall the privileges of the two resolutions approved by the Conference of the International Women's Berlin in 1929 and Istanbul 1935 and where the recognition of the need to abolish the privileges of foreign satisfy the principle of international justice, and because of the cancellation can the feminist movement of Egyptian abolition of prostitution and white slavery, drugs and lends itself to achieving the reform programs, social, and most important of equality between husband and wife to a nationality) ( 
On the Arab level, it was (the Egyptian Feminist Union) role in raising the Palestinian issue in all Arab and international forums, attended by representatives of Egypt. In the women's conference held in Cairo in 1938 sent in the end Hoda Shaarawi as Communities Conference a message to all the Arab kings, which stated: 
(Loving .. The Women's Conference East, held in Cairo from 15 to 18 October 1938, which represents the women of the Arab countries, hopes your Majesty would kindly request to intervene to resolve the Palestinian problem in accordance with the spirit of truth, justice and put an end to that policy contesting and brutality that followed the British in Palestine tormented Yours deeper devotion .. Hoda Shaarawi) ( 
 The case remained the Arab world and the position of the incumbent of the Egyptian women mediated the Egyptian Feminist Union for conferences and meetings of local and international, has always raised, and the 

Egyptian women's strong links with women in particular India's struggle to synchronize the two peoples during this period, and this corresponds to Mrs. Gandhi, the CISA Nabrawi delegate Women's Federation and directs the message to women while it is in Egypt Port Said, which authorities prevented the English coming out. Says in his letter dated December 17, 1931 (I hope to play Egyptian sisters played the same role in Ochthn Indian liberation movement, both in his country because I believe that passive resistance is important for women) ( 
The period forties fertile period in Egyptian women's movement towards the rights and the emergence of critical issues, which started since the beginning of the twentieth century; a full equality between women and men and the adoption of cases involving women of all classes to the rights of women to equality with the workers and their right to maternity leave with pay, also called for amending the Law on personal status, and was credited to the entry of women to the university in 1928. So she joined the Faculty of Medicine, five girls and eight girls, Faculty of Science and four girls, Faculty of Arts and in 1930 joined one girl Faculty of Law. 
And in 1931 I went to one girl, Faculty of Commerce, and began enrollment of girls in Colleges of Engineering and Agriculture in 1945. ( 
And attached to a nice Zayat relationship education to social development, saying: 
(In the thirties and forties began peace social class firmly entrenched fate, and richness of obscene poverty and extreme, in a meeting between them, and represent the jaws of the deep-rooted peace the class some of the jaws and not all the jaws in education and employment. The work was hard work and tireless efforts to overcome all the difficulties, whatever the difficulties the law of the middle class which elevated the value of work in her life and culture together, and drove out some of the most prominent intellectuals in Egypt and Oanthm and best suited to survive and challenge) () 
Thus, the high voice to women's emancipation abt a symbol for the liberation of the country, has supported the existence of the 1919 revolution, which allowed it to do this is a revolution, then the presence of the Wafd Party, which helped more presence and freedom of a leader Saad Pasha Zaghloul, Wife or Egyptians Safiya Zaghloul. Where there was a revolution and a party with broad popular boy of the revolution, namely the 1919 revolution 

And political ideas in this framework stemmed mostly political trends over the twenty years or thirty () This political ideas, which embraced the work of women in the early outdated entered Bmcolat faith in the revolution. 
It began the Egyptian women in all areas of education, work and play of social organizations and the press a larger role in this awakening spirited, appeared magazines (Renaissance women) that have been emancipation Leila Ahmed in 1921 and (Egyptian women) that have been emancipation Balsam Abdullah in 1922, and (Rose Yousuf) to Fatima Youssef in 1925, and (Egyptian) issued by Hoda Shaarawi in French between 1925 to 1940 and supported by the magazine (Egyptian) Arabic in 1937, and that was the context in which she was by the magazine (hope) to Munira fixed in 1925, and ( future mothers) to benefit him Allam, which issued in 1930) ( 
This was the women's magazines, a tremendous source to monitor the movement of Egyptian society until the end of World War II, included as of the details of social life and economic conditions and literary production and political differences, of course, women's issues and the nature of gender relations, and gave us these magazines quick glance at the life of notebooks who Tulin issued. 
One of the issues raised for discussion, you find Laila Abdel Majid, in these magazines: 
1. Special Topics dealt with the participation of women in public and political life and the consequent implications for the lives of women culturally, socially and economically. 
2. Some social issues that were raised at that time, such as a woman going out to work after acquiring a degree of education and the fight against some social customs underdeveloped spirits and exaggeration in the release and funerals, and focus on education issues and laws, especially the magazine (the girl) to Prophet Moses. 
3. Expression of women's struggles and the formation of public opinion to defend a women's social rights of women abroad. 
4. Addressing the issue of unveiling took off after that women veil. 
5. Offered some of these magazines to date the women's movement and the political in the world.
In 1933 celebrated the Women's Federation FIRST university graduates celebrate the fantastic had a major impact in the demand for girls to seek knowledge on the one hand, and in persuading public opinion, the ability of the Egyptian woman - when given the opportunity - access to higher education degrees. Women's Federation also made real efforts to send girls in missions abroad to teach them to complete, and collaborated on the realization of this idea of ​​the flags of figures of thought and literature in the forefront of Mr. Taha Hussein Lotfy 
 Hence, it is a strong recognition of changes in the status of women and enjoyed the power and weight in the community. It also adopted by women to education in the access to the purpose of equality with men and contributed to women's associations in the establishment of schools for girls, and the Assembly to upgrade the young woman in Alexandria leadership in this regard when I thought about Prophet Moses headmistress of a school teachers in the establishment of school tracking Assembly for the advancement of the girl Egyptian morally and scientifically, and sing about education foreign, and was what it wanted in 1921 with the assistance elite of Alexandria, and became the councils of women in this regard reveal awareness of where the importance of educating girls and educate them, and participated journalism school in the creation of personal Almaizp to girl schools, where supplied types of culture, of literature, art and science, and encouraged entrepreneurs pens to engage in various subjects, which showed the requesting school, Princess Fawzia secondary to write about women between home and work, and show the rights obtained by the importance of education with (), and numerous articles, which dealt with more than female students were given examples of the Egyptians succeeded to Ajtiaizen the field of science, such as Prophet Moses - Suheir Alqlmaoy - pretty Alayli - Naima Ayoubi, also helped inform Ahmed Lotfy Mr. Rector of the University and its cooperation with the Egyptian Taha Hussein, Dean of the Faculty of Arts and the Dean of Medicine Mubarak to deal with the opposition, and opened 

The door of college for girls, The results of the first installment honorable women, outperforming Suheir Alqlmaoy was ranked first in the "Arabic language" and Fatima Fahmy first in the "Department of Sociology" and Zahira Abdel Aziz second and Fatima Salem in the "Ancient Languages", and Faculty of Law, graduated Naima Ayyubi After struggling throughout the years of study, also obtained a diploma in chaste Iskandar effects was the third woman in the world in this area (). 
Thus, women have made first steps towards the completion of her education, which can help them to understand everything going on around the affairs of the community and the world, internally and externally. 

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