Iraq Iraq country ..
Republic of Iraq is one of the countries of the Western Asian continent bordering the Persian Gulf. Bounded on the south by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and north, and west of Syria and Jordan, on the east Iran, a member of the League of Arab States and OIC and OPEC. It was called Mesopotamia, they include the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers including the territory is now located, including in Syria and Turkey and found traces of Sumerian in Kuwait, Bahrain and the Al-Ahwaz.
Persian Gulf is the only sea port of Iraq to the world where the sea along the coast of Iraq, about 58 miles and the port of Umm Qasr in Basra, Iraq's most important ports of the Gulf port. Passes Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the country from north to south, and who were the basis of the emergence of civilizations of Mesopotamia, which in Iraq throughout history where I grew up on the ground in Iraq and along the 8000 years a series of civilizations at the hands of Alokdin and Sumerian, Assyrians and Babylonians. The first invented the character of the world are the Sumerians .. Cuneiform writing and the Sumerian language, as well as all the human sciences and the first laws enacted during the breeds first civilization, the Sumerian, but no Thoudy fame or proliferation, and then followed by a who won more popular Hammurabi and Sumerians preceded human civilizations of all creations as poetry, painting and epic literature, music and science.
The Republic of Iraq in the south-west of the continent of Asia and the constitute the northeastern section of the Arab world is bordered by Turkey to the north and Iran to the east, Syria, Jordan and Saudi Arabia from the west Persian Gulf, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia from the south, and extends between latitudes '5 29 ° and 22 ° 37 north latitude and between longitudes 45 ° 38 and '45 ° 48 east longitude.
Iraq covers an area of 435,052 square kilometers.
Occupy the alluvial plain a quarter of Iraq or the equivalent of 132 000 square kilometers and extends to a rectangular shape (length of 650 km and width 250 km) and extends between the city of Balad on the Tigris River and the city of Ramadi in the area of the hill black on the Euphrates River from the north and the Iranian border to the east and the desert plateau from the West and intervention, including the marshes and lakes.
Plateau area is located in western Iraq, and occupies about half the country or an area of 198,000 square kilometers and an altitude between (100-1000) and enter the meter including the region of the island.
The area is mountainous in the north and north-east of Iraq and extend to its common borders with Syria, Turkey and Iran in the west and the north and east, and occupies the region almost a quarter of Iraq (92 000) square kilometers.
Region wavy a transition zone between the lowlands in the south and between the high mountains in the far north and north-east in Iraq, and occupies 50% of the area is mountainous or (67 000) square kilometers (42000) square kilometers outside the mountain region and the altitude of 100-200 m and 25 000 square kilometers in the mountainous region and ranges in height from 200-450 AD.
Area of forests and mountain herbs: Located in the forests in the area of high mountains and within the Mediterranean region and is considered the densest regions of Iraq Inbata because of abundant rainfall and moderate temperatures, covering the plants about 70% of the Area The thirty percent of the remaining include grasses and shrubs. The most important plants in this region is oak, almonds, walnuts, pine nuts and green bean.
Plains region of: semi-mountainous, including the land (terrain) and the eastern part of the alluvial plain, composed most of the plants from weeds and plant some bulbs and forklifts.
The banks of the river: include the banks of the rivers in different parts of Iraq and the vegetation consists of trees and bushes and grass the most important of the West, willows and tamarisk and licorice and Acol and forks.
And grow on the banks of rivers, trees planted by humans, such as citrus trees and palms.
The marshes and swamps: Located in the south of the alluvial plain and in the form of a triangle is located cities Amarah, Nasiriyah, Qurna on the vertices are located in this region the most important marshlands of Iraq Houralhoveizeh a donkey, and the vegetation is a natural reeds and papyrus.
Desert region: This area includes the desert plateau and the alluvial plain, except for its northern and eastern regions. As a result of the great temperature difference between summer and winter, day and night and make a few rain as well as plants in this region are few and adapted itself to these harsh conditions and the most important plants are the tamarisk and the Caper, lotus and thorns and other desert plants.
Iraq is situated within the northern temperate zone, the continental climate is subtropical and the like in him with its Mediterranean climate, where most of him with falls in winter and autumn, spring and summer non-existent.
The climate of Iraq can be divided into three types, namely:
Include the mountainous region in eastern Almashal and characterized by cool winter where snow falls over the mountain peaks and rainfall ranges between (400-1000) mm per year and summer is mild with temperatures not exceeding 35 degrees Celsius in most parts.
Climate of the plains:
A transitional climate.
The hot desert climate:
There is alluvial plain and plateau Bank and includes 70% of the surface of Iraq and the range of annual rainfall in which the B (50-200 mm) and is characterized by the extent to warming big between day and night, summer and winter, with temperatures between (45-50) degrees Celsius in winter There is warm weather, and keep the temperature up a notch and Athbt Freezing to below that for a few nights.
Total Area: 437,072 sq km land: 432,162 sq km
Total length of the borders of 3631 km and the length of the border with Iran, 1458 km, 181 km with Jordan, with Kuwait 242 km, and with Saudi Arabia 814 km, 605 km with Syria, with Turkey, 331 km, and a total length of 58 km of the coast.
Border disputes: We have resumed diplomatic relations between Iraq and Iran in 1990, but they are still trying to work outside the conventions written in disputes arising from the eight years of war between the two countries regarding the boundary markers and the prisoners of war and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over through the Shatt al-Arab waterway, in November 1994 accepted Iraq Tags formally established by the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait border
Oil - natural gas - phosphate - iron sulfur
Government projects to all regions of the displaced water swamps in the east of Nasiriyah by drying or convert the lakes and rivers feeding her and forced residents of these areas of the Marsh Arabs to move to another place and that the destruction of normal life threatened wildlife, there is the danger.
Ancient History of Mesopotamia
Stele of Hammurabi's first law in human history
The need for defense and irrigation of the motives that have helped shape the first civilization in Mesopotamia, by inhabitants of Mesopotamia, ancient towns and they have fenced and D channels. After 6000 BC. M. Appeared settlements which became cities in the fourth millennium BC. M. The oldest human settlements there Iiredo and Uruk (and Rakaa) in the south where I live by the temples of brick and mud were decorated Bmchgullac metal, stones and invented the cuneiform writing. The Sumerians are responsible for the culture of the first there and then spread north to the Upper Euphrates and the most important Sumerian cities that have arisen and then Eisin Perhaps this is due to the Yazidi religion is currently in Iraq, according to historians, Yazidis and Kish, and Larsa, Ur and Literature. In the year 2350 BC. M. Seized a Acadians, who are one of the oldest tribes of the High Commissioner Aramaic, which settled in Iraq up to 4000 BC. M, and came in the form of nomadic tribes in Iraq. Migrated to Iraq and lived with the Sumerians. And devolved power to them in about (2350 BC). Led by their leader Sargon the Great Sargon the Great was able to occupy the lands of Sumer and the imposition of sovereignty over all of Iraq's cities and make the capital city confirmed. And influence in the north of Babylonia and Mesopotamia, Elam, Syria, Palestine and parts of Anatolia and spread to the Persian Gulf and the spaces, even condemned him every region. And thus established the first known empire in history, after the flood. And saw their time in Iraq, a major economic recovery due to the expansion of trade relations especially with the Persian Gulf region. Violent as the caravan routes and was the most important by almost the capital city of central Iraq, which it is connected copper mines in Anatolia, and copper is important in the manufacture of tools and military equipment, and replaced Akkadian language replaced Sumerian. Acadians continued to rule until the drop Jawtyon 2218 BC. M. They are tribes of the eastern hills. After a period appeared the Covenant city of Ur III to the rule and returned to Somreon again in most of Mesopotamia and then came the Elamites and destroyed Ur in 2000 BC. M. And took control of most ancient cities did not develop until something came of Hammurabi of Babylon, Ur and to united the country for several years, a few at the end of his reign. But Amuriyah family came to power in Assyria in the north. And enable the country coming from the Hittites of Anatolia dropped to the Babylonian empire Iakbhm Kushites immediately for a period of four centuries. And then seized by Almitaon (anti-Semitic people called them often Hurion name or Alihuriaon) coming from the Caucasus and remained Mesopotamia for several centuries. But after the year 1700 BC. M. Deployed in large numbers across the north in all Anatolia. There were state of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia and defeated the Assyrians and Mitanni took control over the city of Babylon in 1225 BC. M. They reached the White Sea and occupied the country the Persians in 1100 BC. M. Speaking residents of Mesopotamia to the many languages spoken, but generally three major languages, the evolution of one of the other. After the Sumerian, which was briefly the Akkadian language and the language of the Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians and lasted until about the year 500 BC. M. To be replaced by Aramaic (Syriac dialect = East). Aramaic continued up to 640 b. M, derived from Syriac and Arabic, which prevailed in the region.
Babylon after the destruction of rotation on the rule of Iraq and Alokmignon Seleucids after opening at the hands of Alexander the Great through Balsasanyen. Also arose in Iraq several independent kingdoms, such as urban and Adiabene and Meishan and Manathira before you open it by the Caliphs.
In 762 AD the Abbasids established the city of Baghdad. The leaders of Abu Abbas killer is his brother, Abu Jafar al-Mansur had assumed power two years and then died and he succeeded Abu Jaafar Al-Mansour since the year 800 began several regions declared independence from the Abbasid state and turned into a Mazda or kingdoms ruled by multiple strains. Until it finally signed the Abbasid Caliphate under the control of many of the strains of a military nature, such as Albuehion, and in 1258 destroyed Baghdad by Hulagu Khan because of the weakness of the Caliphate and the preoccupation of Caliph al-Hakim and his entourage playing and tampering and lack of interest in the affairs of the state and is said to Hulagu Khan, was killed almost 1.500 0.000 people in Baghdad.
Began Mongol leader Hulagu Khan in 1257 years to collect a large number of the armies of the Mughal Empire the structure of the occupation of Baghdad. Upon arrival to the capital of the Islamic caliphate student Hulagu of the Abbasid Caliph Musta'sim surrender, but Khalifa refused to surrender, which angered Hulagu ordered the destruction of the capital, which is consistent with the strategy of the Mongols in the inhibition of resistance, have been destroyed Baghdad in full, and ranged estimates that the number of dead between 200, 000 to a million people
The systematic destruction of long-cancel the Abbasid and the burning of the House of Wisdom, which contains innumerable valuable books and ancient documents. Baghdad has been unable to regain its former position as a beacon for science and cultural center. Some historians believe that the Mongol invasion had destroyed the infrastructure of the agricultural system, which was kept on the prosperity of Mesopotamia for thousands of years. Other historians pointed to soil salinity as a major cause in the decline of the agriculture sector. In the mid-fourteenth century AD destroyed the Black Death, many of the Emirates Islamic world. Estimates that have ranged from death has been spent on third of the population in the countries of the Middle East such as Iraq, Iran, Syria and others that in the best conditions and in 1401 Timur invaded Iraq and destroyed Baghdad, after his surrender, was killed by destruction of about 20,000 residents of separation. Tamerlane has ordered all troops to return to it, and with him two heads of the heads of the victims (and the intensity of fear from the soldiers, they killed prisoners who are present have pre-entry warheads Baghdad to see him when they attend to it).
After the fall of Baghdad in succession rule of the Mongols and the Tatars and Turkish tribes such as the white sheep and black sheep. Also enables control of the Seljuks and large parts of northern Iraq, while the Safavids took control of Baghdad and southern Iraq. Took control of the Ottomans, led by Selim I and Ksmoh on Iraq into three states, Mosul, Baghdad and Basra.
British Mandate and independence
After the First World War took place Iraq under British occupation, and Mandate and then won its independence from Britain 3 of October, October 1932, to the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq's receipt of Faisal I, son of Sharif Hussein crown Iraq, and later King Ghazi I, which is the second king of Iraq It is after King Faisal II, the last king of Iraq.
After the overthrow of the monarchy in 1958, Iraq's transition to the republican system, and then the country has witnessed a number of military coups until the revolution of July 17, 1968. When Saddam Hussein became president in 1979, coming in place of former President Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr oil was a 95 per cent of the country's resources in hard currency. However, the war with Iran, known as the first Gulf War and its entry into Kuwait in 1990 and then the second Gulf War in 1991, and then the international sanctions that followed drained physical abilities and has adversely affected the great economic and social situation.
Wars in Iraq's history since its founding
Iraq has had since inception many wars .... including:
World War II.
First Arab-Israeli war in 1948.
The third Arab-Israeli war in 1967.
Fourth Arab-Israeli war in 1973.
Iran-Iraq war in 1980.
Second Gulf War in 1991.
Third Gulf War since 2003
Regimes in Iraq:
Kingdom of Iraq's first rule Iraq in the modern era (from 1921-1958), was officially launched since the appointment of King Faisal I, king in 1921, the country has attained independence only after 1932 to be one of the first Arab countries that gained independence from the Trusteeship European, and specifically Mandate British. After the revolution of July 14, 1958 Brigadier General Abdul Karim Qassem, the Prime Minister and Minister of Defense and Commander of the Armed Forces, either partner in the revolution Abdul Salam Mohammed Aref, has become the second man in the State where he took the posts of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior. After the death of Abdul Salam Arif, the whole selection of Leaders in the ministry Abdel-Rahman Aref, President of the Republic in front of rival candidate Prime Minister Abdel-Rahman al-Bazzaz to be the second President of the Republic in Iraq and the third head of state or the governor after the proclamation of the Republic. Was the exclusion of President Abdel Rahman Aref of government following the movement July 17, 1968 which involved a number of officers and politicians, led by the Baath Party, where they raided the President in the presidential palace and forced him to step down from power in return for guaranteeing integrity and he accepted that it demands to ensure the safety of his son, who was an officer in the army . and then was deported President Abdel Rahman Aref to Istanbul and stayed in exile there until he returned to Baghdad in the early eighties after he had been authorized President Saddam Hussein to return. He then became Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr as prime minister for 10 months after the movement in 1963, where Abdul Salam Arif overthrew the government of the Baath Party of the Movement of 18 October after a series of failures, and schisms have been Baath party against the backdrop of violence practiced by the Baath Party militia and National Guard. Systems pristine Movement July 17, 1968 that toppled the then Iraqi Abdul Rahman Aref. In 1979 took over the presidency of Saddam Hussein's Iraq after the waiver of Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr on the power. In October, 2003 the Security Council approved a resolution giving legitimacy to the U.S. occupation of Iraq and stresses the early transfer of power to Iraqis. In the first of June 2004 was the formation of the interim Iraqi government, which was later dissolved and replaced by the Iraqi Transitional Government, which was one of the main tasks to create the Iraqi elections to choose a permanent Iraqi Council of Representatives and ratification of the permanent Iraqi constitution. Paul Bremer appointed Ghazi Mashal al-Yawar as Iraq's president, after Adnan Pachachi, an apology for the presidency. The main task of the interim parliament that was elected is the election of a council of the presidency composed of a president and two deputies, where three to choose a prime minister who will form the government, has been selected Jalal Talabani president of Iraq, with Ghazi Mashal al-Yawar and Adil Abdul Mahdi, Vice him and they in turn choose Ibrahim al-Jaafari as prime minister and this government was named the interim Iraqi government.
Iraq's long history with the parties according to their intellectual, the situation the party has seen a lot of harassment and confiscation after the arrival of the Baath Party to power, prompting a lot of parties to work outside of Iraq in the Diaspora, but the situation has changed after the fall of Baghdad in 2003 parties returned to the ancient practice activity in addition to the emergence of many new parties: the parties containing a list of many of today's parties, including: the Islamic Dawa Party, Iraqi National Accord Movement, the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq, the Iraqi Islamic Party, Iraqi Communist Party.
Governorates of Iraq
Iraq is divided into 18 administrative regions called provinces. Enjoys three of them (Dohuk, Erbil and Sulaymaniyah) autonomy is widespread.
Iraq's population are residents within the Republic of Iraq, numbering almost 29 million people, 59% of them between the ages of 16-64 and about 38% of them are under the age of 15 years and 3% of those over 64 years, and lives mostly in the center of the country. The largest city in Iraq, according to estimates in 2002 and 2005, namely, Baghdad (4 to 6 million), and Mosul and Basra, and Erbil In terms of number of residents of the provinces and by source of claims to build it on Statistics and the Ministry of Commerce and the planning of Iraq and the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq in 2003, Fmhafezp Baghdad with the largest number of the population, followed by the province of Nineveh, and the province of Sulaymaniyah and Erbil and Basra.
Variety of languages in Iraq as a result of the diversity of different nationalities and religions and creeds, we find in addition to Arabic language, Kurdish and Turkmen, Syriac and Armenian, the language of the retina and the Mandaean addition to the former Iraqi Jewish. As well as many different dialects of Arabic in different provinces of Iraq and its geographical location and Opachtlav months these dialects, tone and visual Alonbarip and Baghdadi and conductivity. English is the language most widespread foreign languages.
Iraq with a Muslim majority about 97% of the population (Shia 60% - 65%, Year 32% - 37%) and Christians and Sabians, Yazidis about 3%, say that the Jews in Iraq, they make up more than 4% of the population after World War II But the forced migration which they were subjected by the monarchy reduced their numbers to nearly 10000 people, improved their days leader Abdul Karim Kassem only the Baath Party coup that led to the return of government persecution, which led them to the result of migration of the rest were left in Iraq, only seven members present.
The Friday and Saturday of each week an official government holiday. In addition, there are 12 other official holiday ..
* Available communication services and e-mail in Iraq at a very early period, but the war waged by Iraq has been stretched by the Iraqi infrastructure in this area as well as to prevent the Baath regime of the Internet and wireless communications were not allowed to use only before the fall, too narrowly in the field of the leaders of the Baath Party only using associated with Thuraya satellite. Since the fall of the Iraqi regime in 2003 entered the Internet and wireless connections to Iraq and become accessible to everyone. We have and are now many Internet service providers via satellite and an increasing number of Internet users in Iraq steadily. .
Thousand and One Nights
Natural History Museum