31‏/03‏/2011

Queen Nefertiti



Nefertiti, whose name means "beautiful come"

Is the wife of Omnhotپ IV (who later became Akhenaten)

Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty famous,

And protectors of Tutankhamun.

Assets
The assets of Queen Nefertiti is believed to be uncertain and the sister of King Akhenaten and their mother is Queen Tiye, and Mrdatha was the wife of the Minister Aye,
That is likely to be a brother of Queen Tiye.
It was called in many times, "Abu-machine"
This suggests it may have been his father by virtue of his marriage to his mother,
Whatever the case, which did not mention at all about himself as Abu Nefertiti.
Although there are references indicating that the image of Nefertiti's sister Notjmt Mutnojme death decree, and decorated the tomb of Aye.

The role of wife

Akhenaten and Nefertiti and her children
Participated Queen Nefertiti her husband in the worship of the new religion, a worship of the Aten power disk of the sun and she and her husband, the mediator between the people and Aten, and is supposed to give the blessed full only when united royal couple, and the Nefertiti during the first years of the rule of her husband to change her name according to change her faith to Nfrnfraton Nefertiti, which means Aten shines as the beautiful may come from.

Remember Nefertiti statue mid to face the photographer and carved on a piece of limestone in one of the finest pieces of art from ancient times, the most popular drawing of Queen Nefertiti, and was found Egyptologist German Udwiگ Borchardt, on December 6, 1912, in the workshop of the sculptor Thutmose at Tel el-Amarna. Borchardt fled statue of the full (non-scarified) to his home in the neighborhood of Zamalek, Cairo, and from there he fled to Germany is hidden within the broken pottery pieces are of no value, sent to Berlin for restoration.

There is another statue of Nefertiti from the Egyptian Museum Red quartzite and decorated with touches of ink which is not less than the accuracy of manufacture of the head in Berlin, but less well known. Property titles and the Great Royal Wife, Nefertiti gave birth six of Akhenaten's daughters:

Merit Aton was born in Thebes before moving to sister furnace
Mkt Aten
Ankhesenamun The Ba Aten, which was married to Tutankhamun
Invernfro Aten indicative
Invernfro Ra
The step-Ra

End of their life
After the twelfth to the rule of Akhenaten, Nefertiti disappeared There was no mention of it and thought it died and was buried in a cemetery Bikhittatun also believed that the transfer of Tutankhamun mummy with his father, Akhenaten abandoned when sister furnace has not been found the mummy of Nefertiti

Tutankhamun



Tutankhamun was a pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt in the history of ancient Egypt, and was the Pharaoh of Egypt from 1334 to 1325 BC. M. In the era of the modern state. The Tutankhamun of the most famous pharaohs, for reasons not related to the achievements made or wars won by, but for other reasons are not considered important historically is the most prominent is the discovery of his tomb and treasures in full without any damage and the mystery surrounding the circumstances of his death saluted considered many of the death of Pharaoh at a very early age thing abnormal, especially with the presence of traces of fractures in the bony hip and skull and marriage and the minister of his widow after his death, declaring himself Pharaoh, all of these mysterious events and heavy usage of the myth of the curse of the pharaohs associated with the tomb of Tutankhamun that were used in films and video games made from Tutankhamun months pharaohs, for reasons not related at all, or the historic significance of the achievements achieved during his years short pharaoh of Egypt, but mysteries and unanswered questions have considered assassinations of some of the oldest in human history.


The name of Tutankhamun Balhelgrevy

Tutankhamun was 9 years old when he became pharaoh of Egypt and his name in ancient Egyptian means "the living image of the god Amun", a large ancient Egyptian gods. Tutankhamen lived in a transitional period in the history of ancient Egypt, where he came after Akhenaten, who tried to unify the gods of ancient Egypt in the form of the one God was in his return to the worship of multiple gods of ancient Egypt. His tomb was discovered in 1922 by British archaeologist Howard Carter and the discovery of this latest media frenzy and widespread in the world.

Beginnings

* Omnhotپ III (1390 - 1353 BC. M.) Great wives and Queen Tiye (1390-1340 BC. M.) Gave birth to the pharaoh Akhenaten, who was also called as Amenhotep IV.

* Akhenaten (1353 - 1336 BC. M.), In addition to his wife Nefertiti Home (1352 - 1340 BC. M.) Had a secondary wife named Kiya and is likely to be the mother of Tutankhamun (1332 - 1322 BC. M..)

* Tutankhamun (1332 - 1322 BC. M.) Became pharaoh of Egypt as a child and died in mysterious circumstances and his wife was unknown and her name Ankh Amun Essen.

* Pharaoh who came after Tutankhamen was the former minister and Kپr Kپro Ra Ai, who married the widow of Ankh Amun Essen Tutankhamun.

Reign

During the reign of Tutankhamun, began a revolution against the Tel el-Amarna pharaoh Akhenaten, who earlier moved the capital from Thebes to the new capital furnace sister queens and try to unite the gods of ancient Egypt, including the multi-god Amun in the form of one god, Aten. In 1331 BC. M. Ie, in the third year of the rule of Tutankhamun, who was 11 years and the impact of the Minister Kپr Kپro Ra ie, lifting the ban on the worship of multiple gods and returned the capital to Thebes.

There is a belief that the death of Tutankhamun was not due to illness but may be a result of the assassination of the Minister Kپrkپro Ra Aye of plotting and there is plenty of evidence supplied by the believers in this theory, for example, marriage minister Kپrkپro Ra Eye of the widow of Tutankhamun, where he found the seal of Pharaonic carries the name of any and Ankh Essen Amon widow of Tutankhamun, and there is also a letter sent by Ankh Essen Amon (Tutankhamen's widow) to the king of the Hittites asking him to send one of his sons for the purpose of marrying her after the death of her husband and the king of the Hittites to send one of his sons to marry widow of Tutankhamun, but he died before he enters the land of Egypt, and there is a belief that he was assassinated probably masterminded by the Minister Kپrkپro Ra Aye, who apparently had been planning to seize the throne of Egypt stood up to kill the pharaoh Tutankhamun was killed Aris widow, but these hypotheses and no conclusive evidence to prove all these theories.

It is worth noting that the historical evidence indicates the presence of ministers of Tutankhamun, one iPhone that was mentioned and the other was named Horemheb There is archaeological evidence confirms that after the death of Tutankhamun, received the Minister Aye reins of power for a short period to be replaced by the Second Minister of Horemheb, which was in his destruction of most evidence of the reign of Tutankhamun, Aye and the minister and this confirms to some conspiracy theory and the fact that the death of Tutankhamun as a result of the assassination and not for reasons satisfactory.

Cause of his death

For a long time was the cause of the death of Tutankhamun, a controversial issue and there were a lot of conspiracy theories which suggest the idea that he did not die but was killed in the assassination. In the March 8, 2005 and as a result of the use of visualization Acharhristi three-dimensional three-dimensional CT scans of the mummy of Tutankhamun, said archaeologist Egyptian Zahi Hawass, that there was no evidence that Tutankhamun had been to the assassination, adding that the hole in the skull does not belong to the cause receiving a blow to the head as it was previously thought, but were to have this slot after death for the purpose of embalming and the ills of Zahi Hawass, the fraction in the bone left thigh, which has long been linked to the theory of assassination as a result of a broken thigh bone suffered Tutankhamun before his death and may have inflammation resulting from This break had caused his death.

Showed the analysis of modern also said that the bone ceiling cavity buccal of Tutankhamun was not complete and the length of the stature of Tutankhamun 170 cm and the length accidental skull greater than the natural length, which many historians proposal disease Marfan's syndrome Marfan's syndrome as a cause of death early this situation and genetic transfer by autosomal dominant genes.

The final report of the Group of archaeologists of Egypt that the cause of death was blood poisoning as a result of fracture in the femur in which he was Tutankhamun, which led to the Alگanگrin Gangrene which is a cell death and tissue degradation as a result of secretion of enzymes from the muscles of dead due to lack of oxygen to it through the blood .

Before this report there have been attempts to find out the cause of death using X-rays X-rays on the mummy of Tutankhamun at the University of Liverpool and University of Michigan in 1968 and 1978 respectively, and reached two universities to the discovery of dark spot under the skull of Tutankhamun from the back, which was interpreted Kinsev in the brain, which led to the spread of the hypothesis that he had received a blow on the head led to bleeding in the brain and death

Discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun

The so-called Valley of the Kings, located on the west bank of the River Nile near Thebes for a period of 450 years during the era of the modern history of the ancient Egyptians which lasted of 1539 to 1075 BC as a tomb for the pharaoh of this period where there is in this valley rocky, an area of ​​approximately 20.000 27 square meters of royal tombs dating back to the three families of the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt and the Egyptian family nineteenth and twentieth Egyptian family was discovered to this day

Believed that the Valley has at least 30 other graves had not been discovered yet. Graves discovered in the Valley of the Kings so far and in chronological order for the rule of the Pharaohs dating back to Thutmose I and Omnhotپ II and Tutankhamun and Horemheb are of the Egyptian family of eighteen and Ramses I and Seti I and Ramses II and Aminmsis and the City II and Sptah and are of the Egyptian family nineteenth and six Nachti and Ramses III and Ramses IV and Ramses V and Ramses IX are of the Egyptian family twenty. There are the graves of other pharaohs of the unknown is still ongoing attempts of their knowledge.

The construction of the tomb of the pharaoh usually begins just days after his inauguration pharaoh of Egypt and the construction will take probably tens of years and the workers were using simple tools such as ax to dig grooves long and the formation of small rooms in the valley and over time there were tombs built over the graves of the other was the construction of tunnels and canyons of the new lead mostly to the blockage of corridors leading to the tomb of the pharaoh earlier, the lack of systematic planning that was the main reason that led to the survival of these treasures and not exposed to the theft of thousands of years.

In the November 4, 1922 when he was an archaeologist and specialist in the history of ancient Egypt, the British Howard Carter, the excavations at the entrance to the tunnel leading to the tomb of Ramses IV in the Valley of the Kings noticed a cellar and large continued exploration flour to be entered to the room containing the tomb of Tutankhamun, and was on the walls of the room containing the mausoleum of the fees great tells in the form of pictures the story of the departure of Tutankhamun to the world of the dead and the scene was very good for the world of Howard Carter, who was seen to the room through a hole in his hand a candle and said that the assistant asked, "Can you see anything?" Fjaoppe Carter: "Yes, I see wonderful things."

On February 16, 1923 was Howard Carter (1874-1939) was the first man since more than 3000 years the land set foot room containing the ark of Tutankhamun. Note that Carter and a wooden box with patterns inlaid with gold in the middle of the room and when the lifting of the Fund noted that the fund was covering second fund decorated with carvings inlaid with gold and when he lifted the second fund noted that the second fund was covering the fund Third restaurant in gold and when you raise the third fund Carter arrived to the sarcophagus which was covered with a thick layer of stone carved in the form of a statue of Tutankhamun, and when you lift this cover Stone Carter arrived to Altabutalzahbi the key was in the form of a statue of Tutankhamun was the golden coffin covered coffins Gold Sponsors others in the form of statues of the young Pharaoh.


Carter was forced to cut off three golden coffins to bring it up to the mummy of Tutankhamun

Met with Howard difficulty in lifting the shroud Golden III, who was covering the mummy of Tutankhamun for the mummy idea Carter said exposing the shroud to the heat of the sun summer of Egypt blazing will be capable of separating the shroud Golden mummy but his attempts failed and forced the latter to cut the shroud golden halves up to the mummy which was wrapped in layers of silk, after the removal of the shroud is made of cloth found the mummy of Tutankhamun full finery of necklaces and rings and crown and sticks and were all of pure gold, to remove these artifacts had excavation team to the separation of the skull and bones of major joints and after the removal of ornaments team brought installation of the skeleton of the mummy and put it in a wooden coffin.

To the public for the first time

Ministry of Tourism has decided to allow an Egyptian mummy of a young mummy of Tutankhamun to the public for the first time since its discovery with her shrine's golden city of Luxor 85 years ago.

The news agency Associated Press reported the director of Egyptian antiquities, Zahi Hawass, as saying that Egyptian scientists began more than two years restoring the mummy of Pharaoh Tutankhamun, which has been severely damaged after graduation for a brief period of her coffin stone when subjected to imaging CT.

Hawass added that the bulk of the body of the mummy fragmented to 18 piece looks - described by the senses - Khjarp crashed when he discovered parts of the British archaeologist Howard Carter first time, and remove it from the grave and tried to remove the golden mask which covered the face of King Tutankhamun.

Char to the mystery surrounding Tutankhamun and the Golden tomb raised the curiosity and enthusiasm of the fans since the studies of ancient Egyptian mummy revealed Carter site in the November 4, 1922, and what was in store for the treasures of gold and precious stones.

Archaeologists have tried in recent years uncovered the mystery behind the way the death of the young pharaoh, who was believed to be the ruler of 12 of the 18 Dynasty and ascended to the throne, the ruler of ancient Egypt at the age of no more than eight years.

In an attempt to uncover these secrets out scientists mummy of Tutankhamun from the grave and put it on the table CT evolving for a quarter of an hour in 2005 in order to obtain three-dimensional image of the mummy older than 3000 years.

And excluded the results of medical examination to be young pharaoh had died were killed, but was unable to determine precisely the way his death, which occurred in 1323 BC.

I discovered that the image of King Tutankhamun suffered a fractured left thigh, caused by an accident most likely, led to his later fatal disease could not be determined.

It also provided an account of the images in a timely manner is unprecedented about the life of the young pharaoh, who is one of the most famous kings of ancient Egypt, including that he was healthy because of good nutrition despite his intention to transform the relatively does not exceed 170 centimeters tall England when he died.www.futuresons.com

Queen Cleopatra



Famous women in the history of Alexandria in ancient times

The last king of Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. I was keen to restore the glory and the power of the Ptolemaic family. And concerned

The development of the Kingdom and will raise in the face of the growing power of Rome.

The Library has paid special attention to some accounts Anyon Remember that library's holdings had reached maximum


Number of outdated (900 thousand volumes in some accounts), especially after he gave Anthony Library Bergamp complete.

And formed a real threat to the Roman army, to enable the defeat of Augustus and Antonius is in the Mark
Actium in Alexandria, a war which ended in deaths of Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide.

Cleopatra took effect on the imagination of poets. Vaguetnawa most wonderful stories of love and adoration stated (Virgil)

The ancient poet in one of his songs that love conquer all, but it proved arrows Cupid weaker than the forces

And weapons (Octavios), which crushed one of the finest love stories in the history of humanity and continues to impact

Cleopatra through time to reach (William Shakespeare), and (Bernard Shaw) and Alzyonker in his play, which by

For Caesar and Cleopatra to be the best of the Queen has something of science, and even images in the image of women flirt

That use her body to attain what you want, and perhaps saw Bernard Shaw in Cleopatra was the embodiment of his views on women.

Vkliopatra and whatever is said about them was beautiful, no doubt, her face is decorated with thousands of coins in various museums

And face east overlooking us from harm and interface Dandara to tell us the date and one of the most famous queens of Egypt

Ancient history.

                                                                                            
As for the date of Queen Venbdoh in 51 BC. M. When he died, Ptolemy Oolic after being recommended to take over his son

Cleopatra the Great (the goddess Almahbplobhe) in conjunction with a larger male sons of Ptolemy, who was a boy in

Ten years old, has made her father the late King of Rome and the commandment of them.

And creep (Caesar) and his soldiers from Rome to Egypt and crushed the forces of King and Little, who died to appoint his brother

Younger Ptolemy XIV Cleopatra to another partner on the throne of Egypt, after a relatively calm things set up

Celebrations in honor of the guest Egypt Great Caesar of Rome, which was said to have lasted for two months spell with

Queen Cleopatra, a trip on the Nile page to see the wonders of Egypt, and the glory.

She has visited Queen Cleopatra in the summer of 46 BC. M. Rome at the official invitation of Caesar, accompanied by her son, Caesar (Caesar

Small) may have to be submitted to the community and established the Roman and her entourage in the Badi Palace, located Biqtaip Caesar

On a hill (Janicol) across the Tiber the center of Rome, and Cleopatra managed Bjazpetha and intelligence and culture that hijacked

The hearts of the Romans and the hatred and envy of Roma women.

After one month of the visit to Rome, Caesar was assassinated by his men, returning to Alexandria, Cleopatra

Hidden.

And take your Octavius ​​and Antony it upon themselves to avenge the killing of Caesar, and agreed invalidity Alian act

Octavius ​​in the affairs of the West and Antony in the affairs of the East, and asked Anthony to attend the Queen of Egypt

To kneel in front of him after accusing them of not providing assistance during the war with the Republicans.

One thing that everyone does not know is that Cleopatra gave birth to twin sons, Anthony and a daughter,

The Octavius ​​kept on their lives and sent them to Rome to grow up there, and they had lost contact did not know about

Their lives and something has to kill Octavius ​​Caesar on the advice of a Alexandrian philosophers, so I will not stay

Successors to (Julius Caesar) are demanding the throne of Rome or Egypt, and since the moment she died the Queen of Egypt issued a

Octavius ​​decision by the five words announcing the annexation of Egypt to the Sultan of the Romanian people.

We have revealed to us by the excavations conducted by the world of Galilee / Nazareth master - in the area of ​​com Oshim for many

Output of interest, including the new title of Queen Cleopatra (Philo Mathur) any love for her mother. In addition to many

Information, which was added to the history of the Queen Khaleda mentioned.

 Antonio & & Cleopatra


By painter ((Lawrence Tdema))

Mark Antonio government members of a tripartite Rome with Octavius ​​Caesar and Lepidus Omelios, neglected his duties

Military after the busy Queen of Egypt Cleopatra, which ignores the problems of national Rome, including the fact that

Vlovia his wife, raised the dead, and Octavius.

Called Octavius, Antony's return from Alexandria to Rome to help him against Albompai, Mnikrats Minas

Pirates of the three to the Mediterranean Sea with notoriety, and in Alexandria, Cleopatra begs Antony not to go,

Is that in this way proves his love for her, but in the end leaves.

To return to Rome, Agrippas restore the idea that Antonio should marry the sister of Octavius ​​Caesar, Octavia,

To strengthen relations between the two men, one of the leaders named Antonio Onobarbs. Nevertheless, the Octavia would not know that

Never soften up after Cleopatra, in a famous phrase describing the charm and the beauty of Cleopatra terms such as "life can not be

Fading beauty. "

Predicts hex to Antonio that he will lose that fight Octavius.

In Egypt, learning the marriage of Antony and Cleopatra expect overwhelming anger on the messenger who was sent to the letter,

But she has happiness when you know the description of Octavia Ldermimp of her entourage.

In a confrontation, the government tripartite Bargains Albompai, and show the need to keep a truce, where it can b

Sardinia and Sicily, but by helping to rid the sea of ​​pirates and sent them a heavy tax, and after

Bombay agrees with great reluctance, and the raucous celebration will be held on a ship of Bombay, Bombay Minas tempt the idea that if

Kill the three leaders will be the leader of Rome, but he rejects it and find that this action against honor, but soon

What invalidates Ooctavis Lapidus and the truce and launch a war on Bombay, this was a war against the will of Antonio

That he became angry.

Antonio returns to Egypt and crowned himself with Cleopatra, kings of Egypt, and one-third of the eastern Roman Empire

Where was this province's share of the provision Antonio trio, accused of Octavius ​​did not give him adequate share

From the land of Bombay and anger because Baydos "who was imprisoned by Octavius" came out of prison and penetrated

From power trio, and Octavian agreed to his requests, but on the other hand was not happy with what they have done

Antonio.

Ontoneaou preparing to fight Octavius, Onobarbs assistant prompts him to fight on land, where

Prevail over him, instead of fighting the sea, where the fleet of Octavius ​​stronger, but Antonio refuses Since

Octavius ​​challenged him to fight the sea, Cleopatra order the fleet to be at the disposal of Antonio, however. In

Middle of the battle fleet of Cleopatra Balston ship, and Antonio followed, leaving his army to defeat, shame and haunt him, including

Klioparta love to do it, he blamed Antonio hard because they have made him a coward, but in the end, this puts love above

Everything.

Octavius ​​sends His messenger to Cleopatra to Antony urging them to surrender and join his, and feel free to tamper with the Prophet,

Antonio enters and deplores what I did, and sends a messenger to the skin, and eventually forgive Cleopatra, and vows to go

Another battle for it, but this time at the land.

On the evening of the battle soldiers Antonio hears strange sounds miraculous, where Vsroha as the god Hercules step down

Antonio protection, beyond that, the commander of Ontunaio which was destroyed for a long time and shun go along with Octavius,

In addition to the confiscation of objects Onobarbs, which did not take her with him when you go to Octavius, ordering Antonio

Things that go Onobarbs again, and die Onorbabs to the generosity of his master. And not ashamed of his devotion, and die

Refracted heart.

Going battle for Ontznio having been launched from land, to the heart of the conflict Octavius ​​nautical time

The other, and loses Antonio when he joins the fleet of Cleopatra along with Octavius ​​and besieged. It deplores Kliopart

Saying, "This foolish Egyptian tricked me!". And determined to kill them betrayed him, Cleopatra decided that the way

Only to regain his love again is to send a message saying they will commit suicide. To die and his name at

Her lips, lock itself in place and waiting for the return of Antonio.

But the plan failed and instead of returning her regret Antonio decides that his life is not worth, so ordering a

His aides, "Ross" to bring him a sword, but did not dare at Aarhus these laborers, and kills himself, Wonder Antonio

His courage and tries to do the same thing, but it fails and be all that is acquired by a deep wound, Antonio knows that

Cleopatra is still alive who shall go in the place of isolation and die in her arms. \

Octavius ​​goes to Cleopatra and tries to convince them to surrender but refused furiously, Tkhan Cleopatra and holding by the Romans.

Cleopatra decides to commit suicide using poison snake Publisher, and die quietly, and meet her to imagine Antonio

Other life, and commits suicide Khademtiha Harmian Aires and the other two here in the same way, he discovers Octavius

Suicide and shows the feelings of a troubled, leaving him the death of Antony and Cleopatra to be the first emperor

Romanian "Augustus Caesar", but he feels some sympathy for them, where he says "will be buried along with her lover L.

Antonio, there is no tomb to encircle the earth two, a couple fantastic, "and ordering that the military be a public funeral.

Suicide of Cleopatra

Committed suicide
In the early days of a mid-August, 8 / 30 BC. M Khaddam made a Queen Cleopatra Cobra Snake means

I heard she committed suicide after the defeat of her boyfriend Roman leader Mark Antony in the war, and the cobra snake

Toxic has remained a logo for the property in the Ptolemaic period have heads above the kings, or were a pair of snakes if

To allow us to believe the words of the Roman poets Virgil and Horace and Propertius Brobbertios have mentioned some

Historians have suggested that the left shoulder is the property that received the first sting Alqatbp Others said that the left breast

Naked

Cleopatra committed suicide in despair that the developed poisonous snake on her chest and was invading the new Octavius

Caesar hoped to walk the Queen, which ruled Egypt in triumph in Rome but soon I see her body

And headed for the organization of the government, announced him to the Sultan of Egypt, the Romanian people, and his declaration in a short sentence

So do not include more than five words are selected and

The title Octavios Balambgel Augustus until the end of wisdom and memory of him to Egypt Romanian empire

Named in the month in which the annexation of Egypt after the civil war against Antony

After her death, the Romans killed Caesar for fear that the demands of empire ROMANIAN heir of Julius Caesar and the Crown

Reign,

Cleopatra ends with the end of the independence of Egypt ends and turns of an independent kingdom to a state of the rule

Roman comes to the Arab Islamic conquest by Amr Ibn El-Aas, some 700 years!!