23‏/03‏/2011

United Kingdom


United Kingdom was created from the historic kingdoms time Kingdom of England (including Wales), Ireland and Scotland. Between the late seventeenth and nineteenth centuries brought a series of political events of these countries to close a political union. United England and Ireland and Scotland in a personal union in the Federation crowns in 1603 when King James VI inherited the throne of Scotland kingdoms of England and Ireland and the transfer of his court from Edinburgh to London in spite of the Three Kingdoms has maintained an independent political structures.
In May 1707, was the establishment of the Kingdom of Great Britain through a political union between the Kingdom of England (including Wales) and the Kingdom of Scotland. Return the event to the Treaty of Union that was agreed upon in the July 22, 1706, and then ratified by the Parliament of England and Scotland and the Parliament to pass laws of the Union in 1707
Later, after a century, is a consolidation of the Kingdom of Ireland, (subject to the control of English since 1691), with the Kingdom of Great Britain to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with the passage of laws of the Union in 1800 led to the conflict in Ireland on the conditions of autonomy Irish ultimately lead to partition of the island in 1921, got the Irish Free State in 1922 on full sovereignty, while Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom. As a result, and in 1927 changed the official title of the United Kingdom to its present form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


Areas that were in the day, part of the British Empire. The Territories and British Overseas are marked in red.
I played the UK in her century the first important role in the development of Western ideas about the parliamentary system, as well as to provide significant contributions in science, literature and the industrial revolution changed the Arts, led by the United Kingdom face the country and fueled the ambitions of the British Empire. During this time, the United Kingdom, like other great powers involved in colonial exploitation, including the slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean, although the United Kingdom played a leading role in the fight against the slave trade in when I passed the Slave Trade Act in 1807
After the defeat of France in the Napoleonic wars, the United Kingdom has emerged as a major maritime power and economically in the nineteenth century (London known as the largest city in the world from 1830 to 1930), and remained a prominent force until the mid-twentieth century. As well as Russia, France and (after 1917) United States of America, Britain was one of the major powers, the opposition of Germany and its allies in World War I (1914-1918). Its military forces played a key role in all parts of the empire and several regions in Europe and increasingly on the Western Front and the Armed Forces Batali has grown to more than five million military
The nation has suffered an estimated two million and a half million casualties and the war ended and a large national debt. After the war came to the United Kingdom by the League of Nations mandate on the former German colonies and the Ottoman Empire, reaching the British Empire to the maximum, and then covered one fifth of the world's land and a quarter of its population. Received the Great Depression (1929-1932) at a time when the United Kingdom is far from yet to recover from the effects of the war which led to suffering and Astrapat political and social.


Infantry Battalion Royal Ulster Rifles during the Battle of Battle of the Somme. United Kingdom has lost more than 885,000 British troops in the arena of the First World War.
The United Kingdom was one of the three major Allies in World War II. After the defeat of its European allies in the first year of the war, and the United Kingdom continued to war against Nazi Germany in the air campaign known as the Battle of Britain. After the victory, the United Kingdom was one of the three biggest powers, which met to draw the world after the war. In any case, the Second World War ended, leaving economic damage to the economy of the Kingdom. However, it contributed to the Marshall Plan and in charge of all loans from the United States and Canada in the United Kingdom to help recovery.
The following years saw the establishment of the war welfare state, including the health care system, the first of its kind in the world. Changes in government policy to also bring a lot of people from all over the Commonwealth to create a multi-ethnic Britain. Although curtail the role of the United Kingdom after the Second World War on the world political scene, which was confirmed during the Suez War in 1956, the international spread of the English language meant the continuing influence of literature and culture, while the popular culture in the sixties of the last century there were also influential abroad.
After a period of global economic slowdown and industrial conflict in the seventies, eighties witnessed a large influx in the North Sea oil revenues and economic growth. Represented the era of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, a major change in the policies of the United Kingdom for the period after the war both in terms of economic or political.
The United Kingdom and one of the 12 founding members of the European Union when it was launched in 1992 with the signing of the Maastricht Treaty. Before that, she was a member in the predecessor of the European Union, the European Common Market since 1973. The end of the twentieth century witnessed important changes in the system of government of the United Kingdom with the establishment of local administrations in each of Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales after popular referendums before - the legislature.
Politics
[Regime
United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy: Queen Elizabeth II, top of the pyramid in the United Kingdom as well as in 15 other countries of the Commonwealth, which puts the UK in a personal union with those of other countries. As to the throne of sovereignty over the Territories and Crown Dependencies of the Isle of Man and Channel Islands Jersey and Guernsey, which is not part of the United Kingdom despite the fact that the UK government manages its foreign affairs, defense and also owns the United Kingdom Parliament power to legislate on their behalf.
 Constitution
The UK has a constitution is written, as is the case in the only other two countries. Consists of the Constitution of the United Kingdom is therefore a range of different written sources, including the Statute, the opinions of judges in case law, and international treaties. Since there is no difference in my work between the statute and "constitutional law", can the United Kingdom Parliament that the "constitutional reforms" simply by passing Acts of Parliament, and thus has the ability almost to change or cancel any item that is written or unwritten, of the Constitution. However, Parliament can not pass any laws, parliaments can not change the future.
 Councils
The UK has a parliamentary government launched from the bases of the Westminster model in which all parts of the world a legacy of the British Empire. Consists of the United Kingdom Parliament, meeting in the Palace of Westminster from the two chambers: the elected House of Commons and the House of Lords appointed. Required to pass any bill approval Queen to become law. Parliament is the supreme legislative authority in the United Kingdom, where the local parliaments in Scotland and Northern Ireland and Wales are not sovereign bodies and can be revoked by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, despite its establishment following the referendum. Prime minister, the head of the Government of the United Kingdom, due to a member of parliament and who can gain the confidence of the majority in the House of Commons, usually the current leader of the largest political party in the Council. Appoints the prime minister and his government formally by the Queen to form Her Majesty's Government, although the Prime Minister chooses his government, while respecting the Queen's choice of prime minister.
 Legislative authority
Usually selected members of the Council of Ministers of Prime Minister's party in both legislative chambers, and Balogelb of the House of Commons, which has the ability to hold him accountable.
 Executive power
Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and Cabinet, all of them before the jury respected the Privy Council, and become Ministers of the Crown. Was Gordon Brown, Labour leader is the Prime Minister, First Lord of the Ministry of Finance and Minister of General Services since June 27, 2007 to 2010. Then came a new government led by David Cameron, leader of the Conservative Party.
 Parliamentary elections
Currently, the United Kingdom is divided to 646 constituencies for election to the House of Commons, 0.529 of them in England, and 18 in Northern Ireland, Scotland and 59 in Wu 40 per Wales. This figure has risen to 650 in the general elections of 2010. Each constituency shall elect a single Member of Parliament by simple majority. Invited to conduct the general elections by the king at the request of the Prime Minister. Although there is no minimum duration of Parliament, the Law Council of Representatives in 1911 and should be a call for new parliamentary elections within five years of the previous general election.
 Parties
In the United Kingdom three major political parties are the Labour Party, Conservative Party, Liberal Democratic Party, which won with 616 of them out of 646 of the available seats in the House of Commons in the 2005 general election. While won the most seats, the remaining parties to contest the elections in one part of the United Kingdom such as the Scottish National Party (Scotland only), and the party Welsh (Wales only), and the Democratic Unionist Party, Social Democratic and Labour, the Ulster Unionist Party and the Respect party led by former Labour MP George Galloway , as well as Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland only, despite the fact that Sinn Fein is running also in the Republic of Ireland), according to party policy, did not represent any of the deputies elected for Sinn Fein in front of the House of Commons to speak in the Council on behalf of his constituents, as required Members of Parliament the oath of allegiance to the Queen. However, the five MPs on the current Sinn Fein since 2002, they used their offices and other facilities available in Westminster. With regard to the European Parliament elections, the United Kingdom is currently 72 members, representing 12 multi-member constituencies. Raises many questions about the sovereignty of the Kingdom because of its membership in the European Union ..
 Branches Management


United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England (England), Scotland (Scotland), Wales (Wales) and Northern Ireland (Northern Ireland). Administratively divided into four administrative branches (subdivisions):
Subdivisions of England (Regions of England)
Area Council of Scotland
Unitary Authorities of Wales
Subdivisions of Northern Ireland
For legal issues under both Wales and England for the same judicial district.
Administrative divisions in England
North East of England (North East England)
North West of England (North West England)
Yorkshire and the Alhambur (Yorkshire and the Humber)
East Midlands (East Midlands)
West Midlands (West Midlands)
East of England (East of England)
Greater London (Greater London)
South East of England (South East England)
South West England (South West England)
 Regions
Formed each of the regions (Counties) or urban regions (Metropolitan Counties) or services and unitary (unitary authorities), Alistthae only to this rule the Greater London area which is composed of municipalities (London boroughs).
 Counties
Scotland consists of 32 areas. Wells containing 22 electoral districts and unitary. Northern Ireland is divided into 24 Districts, 2 Cities, and 6 regions. Apart from the provinces are known, including the United Kingdom many of the other land, or on behalf of aspiring British crown colony (Crown colony). Are not legally part of the Isle of Man (Isle of Man), Channel Islands (Channel Islands) to the Kingdom, but the British government is the conduct of foreign affairs of these islands.
 Geography
 Terrain
England region is made up of the territory of rugged, mountainous terrain abound in the north.
[Edit] Rivers
Thames (Thames) and Sifrn (Severn).
Major cities
Many major cities including: London (London), Birmingham (Birmingham), Manchester (Manchester), Sheffield (Sheffield), Liverpool (Liverpool), Leeds (Leeds), Bristol (Bristol), Newcastle (Newcastle upon Tyne).
Terrain in Wales
Connects the English Channel near Dover (Dover) island between Britain and France. Taatmer Wales is mostly mountainous, the highest summit of Snowdon (Snowdon) rises to 1085 meters above sea level. The island of Onglezai () in the north. The largest cities and the capital Cardiff (Cardiff) South Wales.
 Terrain in Scotland
Vary shape of the terrain in Scotland, with lowlands in the south and east, then the territory of high (highlands) in the north and west, including the top of Ben Nevis (Ben Nevis), the UK's Top (1343 m). There are many long sea arms and some are very deep as Firth (firth), Loch (loch).
 Islands
A multitude of islands north of the region, including: Scotland are also included (Hebrides), Orkney Islands (Orkney Islands) and Stlnd (Shetland Islands). The most important cities of Edinburgh (Edinburgh), Glasgow (Glasgow), Aberdeen (Aberdeen). A Northern Ireland Northern region of the island of Ireland. Spread throughout the hills area of ​​the country. The most important cities of Belfast (Belfast) and Derry (Derry). United Kingdom is made up of about 1098 small islands, some natural and some synthetic, have been formed by rocks and wood, with time this has expanded to form a natural prairie.
Climate
Joe the UK fast-changing and difficult to predict its path, because of its geographical location, and the skies cloudy in most of the time and the rain falls in most of the year, and sunny days very few, and adds wind to the vicinity of the sea cold and moisture, because of the skies cloudy, there is in Britain a vast difference in temperature at night or day. Weather Garsa be in the winter and moderate in summer with the arrival of some warm waves for periods ranging up to a week. Due to the high area of ​​Scotland, the snow-covered throughout the winter in the southern regions of Britain Fender snow during the winter.


City of London, the largest financial center in Europe


Oil refinery in Southampton
 Economy
United Kingdom a leading force in global trade and financial center also has a capitalist economy, and one of the largest economies in the Western world. During the past two decades, the government managed to reduce the budget deficit through the privatization program.
Agriculture
Agriculture sector is very sophisticated, relying mostly on the Kingdom of intensive agriculture and the mechanism which gives the payoff is the largest in the European Union. Although the workforce in this sector does not represent only 1% of the total workforce in the country, but agricultural products covering h. 60% of local needs.
Minerals
The UK has considerable stocks of raw materials such as coal, natural gas and oil. These materials represent the primary energy of 10% of GDP, and this rate is among the highest in the industrialized countries.
 Industries and services
Representing banking, insurance and commercial large proportion of GDP, and this percentage is increasing at the expense of the industrial sector to decline in importance.
 Area Alaioro
The government of Tony Blair, citing five conditions, the United Kingdom must be met before a referendum to enter the area Aloioro.
Are business cycles and economic structures in Britain with European interest rates on a permanent basis?
If problems emerge, is sufficient flexibility to deal with them?
After joining the euro area, what are the consequences for the business services sector in the UK?
Would joining the euro create better conditions for firms making long-term Ttttmr even in Britain?
 Population
And a population of about 59.8 million inhabitants.
 Language
English is the first language in the country. There are other local languages, Welsh (Welsh), Algailikip (Gaelic) in Scotland, Irish (Irish) and many dialects of Scotland (Scots).


Football is one of the most popular sports in Britain
Religion
The official religion, followed in the United Kingdom is a Christian according to the teachings of the Church of England. Know followers of the Protestant Church and represent the majority. Although Christians represent 71% of the UK population, but the British multi-faith society, always trying to promote the principles of tolerance and religious harmony, where exercise full freedom of all the symbols of other faiths.
 Culture
Music
In the field of classical music featured many of the authors: William Byrd), John Tavrnr (John Taverner), Henry Purcell (Henry Purcell), Ilgar Edward (Edward Elgar) and others.
Classical music
In Britain, many orchestras, including the BBC Symphony Orchestra (BBC Symphony Orchestra), Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (Royal Philharmonic Orchestra). Because of its location and economic factors that distinguish the City of London is the main station for classical music lovers in the world. There are many concert halls, also offers the "Royal Opera House" (Royal Opera House) offers, and this is one of the most famous operas in the world.
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