Benin: officially the Republic of Benin is a country in West Africa. Togo is bordered to the west and east and north Nigeria Vburkina Faso and Niger. The Vttal from the south on the Gulf of Benin, where the majority of the population. Capital of Benin is Porto Novo, but the government's headquarters is located in Cotonou, the largest city in the country. Boys covers an area of about 110,000 square kilometers and a population of about 8.8 million. Boys State of tropical sub-Saharan heavily dependent on agriculture, which employs a great deal of employment and income in agriculture ...
The official language of Benin is French, however, typically used for indigenous languages such as Fon and Yoruba. Largest religious group in Benin is the Romanian Catholic, followed by Islam, and Alfodon and Protestants. Benin is a member of the United Nations and the African Union and the Organization of Islamic Conference and the Francophonie and the Community of Sahel-Saharan African Oil Producers Association and the Niger Basin Authority.
Between the late seventeenth and nineteenth centuries the rule of the land of the Kingdom of Dahomey, Benin present. The region known as Coast slaves in the early seventeenth century because of the spread of the slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean ... In 1892 the slave trade was banned and fell regional power, the Soviets picked France to impose control over the area and renamed Dahomey French. In 1960, Dahomey gained full independence from France, and to establish a democratic government for the coming years ...
Between 1972 and 1990, appeared for the existence of Marxist-Leninist dictatorship known as the People's Republic of Benin, and the country entered a period of repression, which ultimately led to economic collapse. Formed the Republic of Benin in 1991 and brought with it a multi-party elections ...
I knew the country on behalf of Dahomey during the colonial period and upon independence. Its name was changed in November 30, 1975 to honor of the Gulf of Benin Benin, which is located across from him, which in turn named after the so-called empire of Benin. Are not linked directly related Benin Benin City in Nigeria and the current Berunziat Boys.
Formed the Kingdom of Dahomey from the mix of ethnic groups in the plain of Abomey. Historians believe it may cause insecurity caused by the slave trade to the mass exodus of Abomey to the present, including some of the people they Allaga Alajabi Alvet and are believed to have founded the city. Allaga mingled with those who have lived with the people of Abomey in the iPhone and also the local people, creating a collection of new ethnic group known as "Dahomey".
Believed that the collection of people due to the strain of immigrants Waluyo. Porto Novo and the first ruler of the Kingdom of Dahomey. Dahomey owned military culture aimed to secure and expand the boundaries of small kingdom with its capital in the current Abomey.
Known for the Kingdom of Dahomey, culture and traditions. Trained in many cases the young boys to become soldiers and taught them military traditions of the Queen even join the naval force when it attained the appropriate age. Given this emphasis on the military side and the successes achieved by the Kingdom of the title of "black Sparta" by European observers and explorers in the nineteenth century such as Sir Richard Burton.
The kings of Dahomey sold their captives to European slave; Otherwise, those prisoners were killed in a ceremony known as the annual tradition. Although the leaders of Dahomey appeared opposed to the beginning of the slave trade, it flourished in the region of Dahomey for almost three hundred years (starting from the 1472 trade agreement with the Portuguese traders), which gave the region the name "Slave Coast." Protocols resulted in the royal court which required the beheading of prisoners of war to the Kingdom of decline in the number of slaves exporters. Also returned this decline in part to the prohibition of the slave trade across the Atlantic from Britain and other countries. This decline continued until 1885, when the last ship left the coast of Portuguese slaves the current Republic of Benin.
By the mid-nineteenth century, Dahomey began losing ground as a regional power. This enabled the French to control the region in 1892. In 1899, the French annexation of land known as the French colony of Dahomey, French West Africa. In 1958, France granted independence to the Republic of Dahomey and full independence as of August 1, 1960.
Over the subsequent years of independence, contributed to ethnic conflicts in a period of turmoil. There were many coups and shifts in the system, with four dominant figures - Hubert Maga and Soro Ohomadigbe Abete and Justin and Emile Derlin Zinsou - such as where the first three different ethnic areas of the country. These three agreed to form a presidential council after violence marred elections in 1970.
On May 7, 1972, power passed to Magga Ohomadigbe. On October 26, 1972 overthrew Gen. Matthew Kerekou Trio ruler to become president, pointing out that the country would not "weigh the same copy ideological foreign, and they do not want capitalism, communism and socialism," and then on November 30 announced the country's Marxist formally under the control of the military council of the revolution that nationalized industry Oil and banks. On November 30, 1975, was named the country the People's Republic of Benin.
In 1979, has been resolved to the National Reconciliation Commission and arranged Kerekou election to be the only candidate allowed. Established relations with the People's Republic of China and North Korea and Libya, and the development of nearly all companies and economic activities under state control, causing drought in foreign investment in Benin. Kerekou tried to re-organization of education, which led to an exodus of teachers, along with a large number of other professionals. Mall of the system itself by hiring a French nuclear waste disposal.
In 1980, converted to Islam and Kerekou is his first name to Ahmed and then changed his name once again claiming that he was born again Christian.
In 1989, riots broke out because the system did not have the money to pay the salaries of the army and the collapsed banking system. In the end abandoned Kerekou of Marxism. It also forced Kerekou Convention on the release of political prisoners and organize elections.
Country's name was changed to the Republic of Benin in March 1, 1990 as soon as completed the formation of the country's constitution after the abolition of Marxism-Leninism in 1989. In 1991, Kerekou lost the elections in favor Nicephore Soglo, and became the first black African president steps down after the election. Kerekou returned to power after winning elections in 1996. In 2001, the results of a very close election victory Kerekou another mandate, and then claimed his opponents and election irregularities.
Kerekou is not a candidate and former President Soglo for the 2006 elections, where the Constitution is strictly constrained in terms of conditions of candidates for the presidency. Pay tribute to Bkrko widely for not doing any effort to change the constitution so that he can stay in office once again in contrast to many African leaders.
On March 5, 2006, held elections deemed free and fair. Resulted in the election run-off between Yayi Boni and Adrien Houngbedji. I got run-off elections on March 19 and won by Bonnie, who took office on April 6. Reap the success of the fair multi-party elections in Benin praise at the international level. Benin is the lack of a model of democracy in Africa, despite its democratic record short.
Place of politics in the Republic of Benin in the framework of a presidential democracy, as the President of Benin both head of state and head of government in the framework of a multiparty system. Executive power is exercised by the government. While the legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The judiciary is independent from the executive and legislative branches. Derives the political system of the 1990 Constitution and the transition to democracy later in 1991.
In its report on press freedom in 2007, the Reporters Without Borders Boys ranked 53 out of 169 countries.
Recorded a balance of boys high in the Ibrahim Index of Jkm good for the year 2008 in Africa, which measures the state of governance across the continent. Was ranked 13 out of 48 African countries south of the Sahara, and recorded a balance of good in the categories of safety and security, participation and human rights.
Consists of the armed forces in Benin from three branches of the ground force and navy and air force. A population of members 5000. The age of compulsory and voluntary recruitment in Benin is 21 years, but can join the army at the age of 18 years and can be both male and female service in the army.
Benin is divided to 12 department or administrative region, which in turn are divided to 77 municipalities.
Benin, one of the smallest countries in West Africa, which is eight times smaller than Nigeria, its eastern neighbor. However, it is two sizes larger than its western neighbor Togo.
Shows little difference in the height of land above sea level in the country, and can be divided into four regions from south to north. Start Mounkhvdp coastal sand (top height of 10 meters (32.8 feet)), which is a width of at most 10 km (6.2 miles). Punctuated by marshes and lakes associated with the ocean. Behind the coast is savannah and mosaic-covered hills (height between 20 and 200 m (66 and 656 ft)) and divided by valleys that stretch from north to south along the rivers Kofu Ouzou and Ouémé.
Followed by an area of flat land, which also contain the rocky hills that are rarely up to an altitude of 400 meters (1312 feet) and span the Nikkei Net. Finally, a range of mountains stretching along the North-West Frontier and in Togo. These mountains Atacora The highest point in Mount Skbaro up 658 meters (2159 feet).
Boys have to fallow land, mangroves, and remnants of some of the great forests. Covering the rest of the country savannah with thorny bushes and dotted with huge baobab trees. Some forests stretch on the banks of rivers. In the north and north-west of Benin, there are some nature reserves and national park, which attracts tourists who are eager to see elephants, lions, antelopes, hippos and monkeys.
Benin climate is hot and humid. Annual rainfall in the Mediterranean coastal area 360 mm (14.2 in), which is not high compared to countries of West Africa's coast. Boys in the rain seasons and two dry seasons of the year. The main rainy season between April - July. With a shorter duration of less intensity of rainfall from late September to November. Main dry season is from December - April. With cold weather and drought for another short period from late July to September. Temperature and humidity is high along the tropical coast. In Cotonou, the maximum medium temperature of 31 degrees Celsius (87.8 degrees Fahrenheit) and the minimum is 24 degrees Celsius (75.2 degrees Fahrenheit).
There are also differences in the rise in temperature when moving north through the savannah and the plateau towards the coast. Dry winds blowing from the desert from December - March. Through dry grass and plants turn reddish brown, and layers of fine dust hangs over the country resulting in cloudy skies. It is also the season when farmers burn the fields after harvest.
Benin's economy is still in development phase and depends on agriculture, cotton production and regional trade. The cotton contained 40% of the gross domestic product and about 80% of export revenues official. The average growth in real output about 5% in the past seven years, but rapid population growth is not commensurate with the income of the country and with this increase. Decline in inflation over the past several years. Boys use a Swiss Q P as the official currency, which is pegged to the euro.
Benin plans to attract more foreign investment for more growth. There is an increased focus on tourism, facilitate the development of new systems for the processing of food and agricultural products, and encourage new information technology and communications. Emerged as projects to improve the business climate through reforms to land tenure system, the system of trade justice. The United States of Benin $ 307 million Millennium Challenge Account grant, which occurred in February 2006.
Reduction of the Paris Club and other creditors Benin's external debt was announced in July 2005, while being pressed to speed up structural reforms. Boys complain of inadequate supply of electricity that do not continue to adversely affect economic growth, although the government recently has taken steps to increase domestic production of energy.
Although the trade unions in Benin represent up to 75% of the formal labor force, noted the International Federation of Trade Unions that there are many persistent problems, including the lack of pay equity for women and the use of child labor and the issue of persistence of forced labor.
Benin is a member of Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).
Port of Cotonou is the only port in the country's only international airport as well. There is a new port currently under construction between Cotonou and Porto Novo. Benin is a link to the routes between the neighboring countries (Togo, Burkina Faso, Niger and Nigeria).
Currently, live almost a third of the population below the poverty line up to $ 1.25 per day.
The majority of the population in South Benin. Most of the youth population with average life expectancy around 59 years. Live about 42 African ethnic groups in this country, where they settled these different groups in Benin at different times and also migrated within the country. Include ethnic groups Alieropa in the southeast (migrated from Nigeria in the twelfth century), and Deinde in the region of north-central (who came from Mali in the sixteenth century), and Paribas, Alvolby (Peul) in the north east of the country, and Bitamarribi and Alsomba in the Atacora; FON Bobomi in the surrounding area in south-central and enamel Azwaida and Allaga (who came from Togo) on the coast.
Recent migrations have brought other African nationals from Nigeria to Benin, Togo and Mali. The foreign community also includes many Lebanese and Indians who work in the trade. While a staff of embassies and European missions and humanitarian organizations and non-governmental organizations and various missionary groups about 5500 people in the country. Is a small part of the European citizens in Benin are of French origin, where the rule of their ancestors left the boys and after independence.
During the eighties, there was only less than 30% of the population to primary health care services. Benin has suffered from one of the highest mortality rates of children under the age of five in the world. Mortality rate was 203 infant deaths per 1000 live births. I got one of only three mothers on the health-care services for her child. The situation has changed dramatically thanks to the Bamako Initiative through the introduction of reforms in the health care system based on the community, which led to the provision of services more efficient and equitable. [And sought a comprehensive strategy to include all areas of health care, with the development of indicators of health care and later improvements in the efficiency of health care and costs .
Benin has a tradition of oral literature long tradition goes back to before the French invasion, which made French the official language.
After independence, the country witnessed the diversity and vitality of the music scene, as demonstrated by local music with popular music Hailaev Ghanaian and French cabaret, and rock and American funk, soul, and Congolese rumba.
Use of local languages as languages of instruction in primary schools, while offering French only after several years.
Education in Benin is not free in the past, but that the fees have been abolished and working to implement the recommendations of the Educational Forum in 2007. Literacy is less than 40% despite the fact that literacy campaigns targeting women in particular.
Mosque in Baracoa
In the 2002 census, was 42.8% of the population of Benin of Christians (27.1% Catholic and 5% Church of Christ and the heavenly Methodist 3.2% and 7.5% other Christian denominations), while 24.4% of Muslims and 17.3% practiced voodoo and 6% convert to religions traditional local and 1.9% of other religious groups and 6.5% without religious affiliation. Largest religions provided the country is Islam, which entered the Songhai Empire, wholesale Hausa currently spread all over the Alibori, Borgou and Dunga as well as between Alieropa (those who follow Christianity as well), and Christianity spread throughout the southern and central Benin, Ootamare in Atacora. Many still believe, however, and Balfodo Aloyryca and included it in Christianity. Community highlights the Ahmadiyya sect which INPE in the nineteenth century in a large minority.
Football is the most popular sport in Benin. Benin team participated 3 times in the African Nations Cup in the years 2004 and 2008 and 2010.