24‏/03‏/2011

Sadat .. and the era of economic openness


Dead, "Gamal Abdel Nasser" in the September 28, 1970 and left a legacy of the legacy of loaded defeats the most bitter defeat of 1967, and then his successor, "Anwar al-Sadat," which had been appointed as Vice President of the Republic in the last year of the reign of, "Abdel-Nasser," and if "Anwar Sadat" of the Free Officers, and the Revolutionary Command Council the old, then assumed the positions of the relevance of what in the Covenant of Nazareth; a member of some special courts special, and head of the editor of the Republic period, and the agents of the National Assembly and Chairman of this Council, it is in all of these things has never held an executive and led the body of the devices which is what it is relied on by the State of Nasiriyah, and political decision-making and implementation, so it was his appointment as President of the Republic with the survival of the state bodies all - almost - Bkiedadtha earlier that they include men of the most loyal aide to Abdel-Nasser, and faithful to its policy of implementing them, This was swinging with him than likely that the State continues to remain the same, and that "Nasser was" still in Bamaaaunay different hardware, running the presidency
Was received by the people the new President Muhammad Anwar Sadat a lot of satisfaction when he presented himself as a spokesman for democracy, the reforms first represent important steps in the direction the Democratic, new Constitution, which was announced in September 1971, includes an entire chapter on "the rule of law," was another chapter contains most of fundamental freedoms and human rights and that there was a paragraph is an ordinary saying that the exercise of those rights must be within the limits of the law and under Article 47 Freedom of expression in word and writing, photography, or any other means is guaranteed, also acknowledges the lawyer, Ahmed Nabil Al-Hilali, "The arrests without permission from the prosecution and detention for political reasons without trial may have stopped already after that. although they did not put an end to the arrests of political permission or trial after a period of detention and investigation. It is true that the security system does not solve, but the arrests have become less random as decreased barbaric practices Investigation to a large extent, abolished censorship of newspapers and magazines in the February 4, 1974, although it remained on the books until 1977, under the Political Parties Law in 1977 introduced a kind of pluralism has become the right of opposition parties to issue newspapers, and the paradox, though these reforms did not give the freedom of expression opportunity to grow, Valsadat was in favor of democracy in theory against his opponents, and the fact that the authority of president Sadat had been challenged from within the Arab Socialist Union itself and from the outset
At a meeting of the Central Committee in April 1971 rejected all - except for three of the four hundred members were present - his proposal to the unity of Syria, Egypt, Libya, and there is no doubt that the opposition, which was headed by Ali Sabri and Shaarawy Gomaa (Interior Minister), and Sami Sharaf (secretary of President Gamal Abdel Nasser) they want to overthrow all of them belonged to the Department of Abdel Nasser, the Interior and they look to his successor "with contempt", but three weeks after Sadat is the one who succeeded in overthrowing them when they returned to the nation on May 15 and announced a revolution patch, and was able to turn to crack down on opponents bitter and arrest to the victory for his person and his policies.
Was Shaarawy Gomaa, Sami Sharaf ex officio members to symbolize the most intractable in the era of Nasser - FBI raids and intelligence - while he is "Sadat," the new president, was preparing to return to what the people waited a long time .. Freedom / democracy, but the label that launched them, "power centers" and loaded of significance negative was then used repeatedly against liabilities Nasserites in general, and gave him that as a political excuse to settle scores with Nasiriyah without exposure to Abdel Nasser personally, which always happens in history When the secret goal of another target.
Commitment Sadat democracy was the attendant from the beginning to drop his opponents, and under the banner of democracy as well, and over time the number of his opponents, particularly in cultural life, and after that I got them beat the liquidation of Nasiriyah, and because of the contempt Sadat's culture and position of the views of intellectuals and the migration of a large number of them to Arab and foreign countries have a great deal of confidence that had been achieved among intellectuals Bislahath democracy, and in 1971, has already begun to dismantle the edifice of cultural, built in the reign of Abdul Nasser, closed down most of the cultural magazines, which was issued by the Ministry of Culture and the Egyptian General Authority of the book at one time almost closed First Magazine "movie theater" and then "Journal" and "story" and "Arab Book" and "modern thought" and "folk art" in October 1971. To replace all magazine and one is the "new" under the chairmanship of Rashad Rushdi, and then came in October 1973, the magazine "Culture", headed by the Minister of Culture, Joseph pentathlon, but none of the magazines did not reach the high level of the magazine "Journal" and has been the magazine "author" an independent voice even September 1974 when he presented editors mass resignation in protest against the intervention of the ministry, and then closed after a few months, as decided by the General Authority of the book off the chains that were previously issued, such as "library culture" and "writings of the new" and "flags of the Arabs" and "novels" universal and "Masterpiece Theatre World"
And Sadat had announced that he will make in 1971 and in 1972 a critical year in the standoff with Israel, and when not achieved anything and central air does not predict love or peace, the spirit of frustration with the tension in the ranks of the armed forces and student demonstrations surge was facing means repressive known, and in January 1973 collection of Tawfiq al-Hakim a number of journalists, writers and intellectuals in his office in Al-Ahram and the theme was the concern is the oppression of government student movement, which had been demanding to liberate the land of Egyptian territory, after all the talk about the preparations and decisiveness, decided to collectors to convey their concern to the Government and mandated wise to write present a letter signed by then Mrroha to collect additional expectations of them, and when the message was published in Lebanese newspapers Sadat became very angry and search for a legal way to punish the signatories, was the best means to do that is the Arab Socialist Union. On February 4, 1973 overwhelming 64 journalists and writers have their names published on the first page of the newspaper Al-Ahram, and the report that he has been expelled from the Arab Socialist Union, then the explanatory memorandum demonstrate that they consequently they were excluded from unions and committees and organizations, all relevant EU socialist, and also functions that require membership of the Socialist Union such as the press, that is, they have been forced to retire, On February 6, published another list of 10 names and a third on Feb. 7, includes 16 names, bringing the number of journalists laid off in the end, 107 a name. Among those writers who put on the black list there were eight of the Book of literature are: Tharwat Abaza - Louis Awad - Alaa Dib - Alfred Farag - Gamal Ghitani - Ahmed Hamroush - Yusuf Idris - Lotfy El Kholy - There were also poets, prominent, such as: Ahmed Abdullah Muti Hijazi - hope Denkul - Ahmed Fouad Negm. And were excluded Tawfiq al-Hakim, Naguib Mahfouz of these lists
Have included the lists of deportees names of prominent writers, critics, poets and journalists as well as 5 members of the Press Syndicate Council, although the majority were from the leftists, but that there was - well - liberals and conservatives and others without any political history final, and taken on this resolution that occurred after the 9 months of the Declaration of Sadat - as President of the Socialist Union as well - the return of all the journalists who were Nasser had banished for political reasons, to their jobs.
The practical consequence of the separation of those writers, as was the goal of which is suspended from their work in newspapers, magazines, news agencies and radio, but under the pretext of false and rejected the Journalists Syndicate to obey the orders of the chapter, because it was not considered the membership of the Socialist Union condition for the practice of journalism or for membership of the union, also dismissed Mohammed Hassanein structure was still chief editor of Al Ahram implementation of the resolution, "says Makram Mohamed Ahmed, who was one of eight included a dismissal of the Al-Ahram" I did not ask us to structure to leave the newspaper "and when he cried Sadat," Armey animals States righteousness ", he refused the structure and said" is not filled, "and the result process to separate those writers were not stopped, only for work, but they became persona non grata within the mass. Valfred Faraj, for example, found his name removed from the ads his play "The marriage of a divorce paper" which was exhibited in Cairo to be abolished, and Louis Awad, who separated from the automation of Arts and Letters was not in front of the book or leading journalists an opportunity to defend themselves against attack on them in the press.
Have abolished the policy of Sadat Almuturp this suspension, in an interview in the September 28, 1973 after eight months on the third anniversary of the death of Abdel Nasser, and before the Yom Kippur War about a week, in the period, some authors prominent left Egypt already to work in Arab countries and Europe.
On February 9, 1974 abolished censorship of newspapers and magazines, however, did not entail the cancellation of freedom of expression and \ expected, since the disappearance of sergeants from the editorial offices moved their oversight to the editors and heads of boards of directors who were appointed by the President, and therefore they are accountable to him, and dissolved Help daily issued by the president's press office place orders censors, and there was significant changes in the press, journalists are respected replaced by people of all qualifications loyalty to Sadat and his policy, and in February 1974 left the structure of Al-Ahram to his successor, editor of New, and then, following the ball, and in a period of 8 years rotation Gazette eight heads Edit. However, notes Laila Abdel Majid, relax with regard to freedom of expression in the period from the end of 1974 to March 1976, in the period, was the stage of Abdel Nasser discussed - although the general characteristic of the comprehensive review of Nazareth, but the area was open also for the contributions of a balanced or opposition from newspapers such as the "Rose Al-Youssef," and continue to press - especially cultural - free of the characters left-wing and liberal, and views and it is sometimes by changing editors cultural, sometimes through the tightening of editorial control, and the result is that freelance writers who write in culture have lost their power As a result of the siege of strict control them.
On October 10, 1976 arrested by the Jordanian Ghalib Halasa A month after the prison denied to Iraq. The reason is headed for a conference organized by the Union of Writers and Palestinian journalists for "the American project in the Arab region," the Egyptian security services do not want to be for the Palestinians any contacts with Egyptians, although a large number of writers and journalists, the Egyptians were among the public, but have not received any of them . Did not intercede for Halasa that he lived in Egypt for 21 years. In December 1976, Prime Minister Mamdouh Salem abolition of censorship of books, and in the beginning of this decision was not an impact on the implementation, where the owners of printing houses committed to the orders of old and they were asking the security approval before printing, and is not the implementation of the law abolishing censorship there after being arrested on writer Fouad Hijazi in May 1978 accusing prints for his novel "Prisoners of all times", and released the government released after posting bail of 30 pounds. At the end of May 1978 declared the Socialist Union that will assess the case against 30 writers and journalists Egyptians in exile, and 10 in Egypt, writing for newspapers and foreign news agencies, on the grounds that they distort the reputation of Egypt and threaten the internal front and social peace, and one of them was Mohammed Hassanein Heikal, who was questioned on Over 11 meetings in July and August, in fact, the system is making continuous efforts to separate those who wrote the book "against Egypt" from the Press Syndicate since April 1974.
The bread riots or uprising "hunger" in January 1977 - which was launched by Sadat uprising thieves - it is followed by arrests and the arrest of a broad and significant changes, the chapter authors Salah Hafez Fathi Ghanem editors of Rose Al-Youssef of the magazine over an article believes that the uprising was due to economic reasons The errors of the government, and Lotfi El Kholy chapter of the editor of the "vanguard", and was prohibited from publishing until the mid-eighties. Have also been detained by Salah Eissa for two months in Abu Zaabal in the fall of 1977, and was Salah Eissa, a journalist who submitted their names to the Socialist Public Prosecutor in May 1978 with the names of Mohamed Hassanein Heikal, poet Ahmed Fouad Negm and seven others "accused of tarnishing Egypt's reputation and threatening the internal front and social peace" in published articles outside of Egypt, has imposed restrictions for travel among them Mahmoud El Saadani and Abdel-Rahman Khamisi and poets Ahmed Abdel Muti Hijazi, Mohammed Afifi Mattar, and critics Mahmoud Amin world Ghali Shukri, and by 1980 the number had risen to 102 among them were Abdul Hakim Kassem and Alfred Farag
Over the years, conflict has worsened with the increasing number of writers and journalists who had left Egypt In October, 1980 the Socialist Public Prosecutor charged 120 journalists writing articles against the political system of the state. In a large operation was carried out in the sixth of September 1981 has arrested thousands of alleged sectarian strife, and from the detainees, 250 of the most prominent public figures: the leaders of trade lawyers, journalists and opposition parties, all independent MPs and a number of opinion leaders such as Mohamed Hassanein Heikal and writer Nawal El Saadawi, which was in her fifties and Amina Rasheed, Latifa Al-Zayat, which was on its eighth session, and was the oldest Fathi Radwan, a political writer, famous, who was in the ninth and sixty years of age and the youngest Azzedine Najib, who was in the thirty-second session were separated a lot of academics from the university, and what do these secular intellectuals certainly did not raise the religious differences, but criticism of the Camp David Accords and the policy of Sadat's economic and, when Sadat was assassinated on October 6, 1981 there were more than three thousands of opponents of his policy in prisons, which had been announced years ago Low closed for all of us. The worst side in the stage of the rule of Sadat for freedom of expression, is that attrition cultural event, it has been cleared of the press and publishing houses and theater from most of the elements of leftist and liberal, and the isolation of intellectuals, leaders from public life, and the dismantling of many parts of the edifice, cultural, built in the reign of Abdul Nasser , and found themselves the book publishing industry especially hardly be found. But which are not likely to dispute is the impact of the boom which left Mohammed Anwar Sadat, locally, regionally and internationally during the years of his reign, which lasted since the departure of Jamal Abdel Nasser a sudden in September 1970 to the tragic end bloody suffered in the accident the platform famous during the commemoration of victory in October 1981 .
"One of eleven years he spent Sadat in the regime beginning with the legacy of leadership of the popular legendary and end of the murder is unprecedented at the hands of the willing tools of the system of Islamic extremists, and between start and end a power struggle in May 1971 resolved in his favor, and the October 1973 war repercussions enormous, and the openness of economies has led to shifts radical in the Egyptian society and choose to peace with Israel after decades of war, and siding with the entire United States of America after years of hostility, the outcome of the rule of Sadat's worthy of reflection and analysis of political, economic, social, and that the position is worth is another follow-up, interpretation and evaluation ".

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