18‏/03‏/2011

Egypt, the cradle of civilizations ...(1


Egypt, the cradle of civilizations 

Over the 70 century was marked by Egypt and its civilization and culture helped to write the history. The curfew in Egypt, such as movement through time. And each time he made his mark in all the magazines, thanks Almaiha and talent of its writers, who are still alive among us thanks to their work, which is part of our history and our civilization. 

Nature played a major role in the formation of Egypt. Since about 7000 years old river pool and desert in one place, forming a vast area of ​​land deals and the composition of the oldest civilization on the planet, "the Egyptian civilization," the Commission ambiguity. 

You can roam between Pharaonic Egypt, Romanian, Greek, Christian, Islamic and will help you to understand and appreciate the treasures discovered that contributed to identify the various human civilizations. The tour will provide you with information about the earliest evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, and the establishment of families and kingdoms and end, and migrations, and Bta pyramids, and the era of building temples, and historic victories and defeats 

Pharaonic history 

Unification of the two countries 

No one knows for sure exactly how the conflict started between the kingdoms of the north and the south, nor how long this conflict. But it is known that in about 3500 BC King Menes succeeded (King of the South) to unite the two countries into one kingdom and wearing a crown featuring Taji north and south together and held the title of King of Upper and Lower Egypt (ie, level and Delta). After that united the two countries has created Mena capital of ores in a place where the average and the children around the castle wall and white he called "a group" any beautiful enamel. 
And then when the Arabs came they called "Memphis" and the place is now the village of "dead hostage" in southern Giza. Thus began the oldest and greatest civilizations of human history of civilizations. Here also it starts Egyptian history and later named the era of families where the family begins the first enamel. 

Graffiti 

And not in ancient Egypt, the learning will take back the entire 12 years and the main objective of this education is the training to read and write symbols depicted in the Egyptian writing system known as hieroglyphics. The word "hieroglyphic" carved from a duplication of Agriqitin two words: "Hero", meaning "holy" and "Glev" means "sculpture." Shadow world for several centuries can not actually read the Egyptian hieroglyphics. But in 1799 the ages were on the famous Rosetta Stone in the town of Rosetta in the western Delta. Booking a copy of a royal decree issued in Memphis in 196 BC. Priest issued to commemorate the anniversary of Ptolemy IV. It is written in three languages: Egyptian and Alheiroglvip vernacular or demotic Egyptian and Greek. Greek text was easy to read and therefore was possible to distinguish the names of the Ptolemaic rulers written in colloquial Egyptian. Then the world discovered that the British Thomas Laing hieroglyphs consisting of audio indications and property names are written inside the oval shapes called "cartridges" and this revelation that led to deciphering hieroglyphics achieved by the French scientist Jean-Francois Champollion 

Ancient Egyptians and astronomy 

Egyptians began the study of stars since the very early period in their history. They were one of the first astronomers, and became the temple of the sun god at Heliopolis an important center for the study of astronomy. Was associated with astronomy when the ancient Egyptians is closely linked to the process of forecasting Bmoakit. They developed a calendar year divided the year into 365 days and divided also the day and night into 24 hours in spite of the change the length of day and night according to the seasons and the Egyptians were the first of the peoples that starts with the timing of today have midnight. And enter the leader of the Roman Julius Caesar, the Julian calendar, which divides the year to 365 days with the calculation of the fourth year a leap year every four years. And adopted in this on his contacts with the Egyptians and astronomy scientists Arsadhm by the overseers in Egypt. This calendar has been in effect that the solution to the locality in 1582 by the calendar last modified slightly and is called the Gregorian Calendar 

Saqqara and Abydos 

Memphis became the capital of the unified state. This status made it very rich and also made the staff of the royal court official who controlled the production and imports in the new state is very rich. This wealth enabled this footnote to build the graves of its members sing. This cemetery - which claims the cemetery was built in the Terrace area in the cemetery of Saqqara, which overlooks the city of Memphis. The burial chamber is located in every cemetery in the middle under the earth carved from the rock, and filled with broken stones after being buried in the body. The cemetery is divided into several rooms or rooms to accommodate all the items needed by the deceased in the afterlife. After the completion of all procedures established for burial, the cemetery covers Bmstmladtha ceiling are not allowed to enter. Unfortunately, the majority of the bishop home easy for thieves to enter the cemetery to the extent that most of the terraces at Saqqara, including all their contents were looted in the last issue. The town of Abydos - which lies 97 kilometers north of the city of Luxor, the current - a holy place else. They are the official final resting place of the god Osiris was probably the tombs of the kings of ancient Egypt as well. In any case, it is believed some Egyptologists that Lapidus was only a repository for the Kings, while the effects of Saqqara is the seat of the actual burial. 

Pharaonic 

Ended learners to assemble dynasties in three countries: the old, and Central, and modern. And among these countries and after three periods within which Egypt has suffered from weakness and sometimes the rule of foreign kings sometimes 

Old state 

State began the third in the old family in 2686 BC and ended in 2181 BC and included the kings bones, such as Zoser and Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure. Egyptian civilization evolved rapidly evolving in the era of the ancient state. Increased its strength by the central government and active management and advanced technology and sophisticated hieroglyphic writing and art riser. There is no comparison between the face of any work and architectural work of this tremendous feat we know as the pyramids. The first is built the pyramids of Djoser, one of the kings of the Third Dynasty. He further claims Nnigercht, because the Kings at birth, was added to their names the names of Horus or six, depending on place of birth was north or south. Netjrkhitt and is affiliated with the name of Djoser Horus 

Pyramids 

Djoser decided to build his tomb at a distance of almost a mile from the cliff Saqqara 
Even be away from the tombs of other terraces. The tomb is the first building stone large scale 
World has ever known. This work was carried out by the Minister Imhotep Djoser. 
Pyramid designed by the runway, which consists of six degrees is 
Equal and rise to 62 meters. The inside of the amazing work the corridors and mazes. 
The first real pyramid is built by the King of Snnifero 
Alrayap family. And is called the Red Pyramid, one of the pyramids built by the king. 
But the largest pyramids built by Khufu's son Sinfro. 
This monumental edifice 
He was standing tall when built up almost 147 meters on the Giza plateau near 
Cairo. 
Was used to build 
Great Pyramid more than 2 million stone block and a separate right to know that the Great Pyramid, a 
One of the seven wonders of the remaining traces of the ancient world. 

God is the ancient Egyptians 

Abdul ancient Egyptians multiple gods, and their God is Great "Ra" the sun god, which is relied upon and the goddess "Rinoti" goddess of the harvest and the symbol of sovereignty in increased yields. And Isis, which represents motherhood and faithful wife - the most important goddesses. And Osiris - her husband and her brother grazing germination and the Kingdom of the dead. And Horus is the son of Osiris and Azis, who is described as the God of heaven. For example, the people of Memphis, Abdel Ilah "Ptah," patron of craftsmen and the goddess Sikhmit Nvertom and their son. And most of the ancient Egyptians used to pray to their gods in the house and not in the temples. And each temple was a house for a certain trust in the God of his service to the priests, who lives praying to God at the request of citizens. 

Life after death 

The ancient Egyptians believe firmly in life after death. Believed that the child is created at the start of the pottery wheel maker at the hands of god Khnum creates corresponding with him. This is just like a spouse of that child's body in all its details and then have all the demands of the body and instincts. And the spouse, called the "Ka" Positioning the heart. After the death of this separated spouse "Ka" from the body but does not leave the cemetery until it is close to that body, who spent the Umrah. This remains in need all that was needed for the body vs. his life of food and drink, clothing and perfumes continued to shield them from the sunburn, and perhaps even needs to be assigned to a server. That put all those things in his grave to be ready for use. 

Mummy 

Ancient Egyptians believed that it is necessary to maintain the spirit of the deceased in order to live carefree in the other world. It is for this industry devised a way to save the body, known as mummification. It starts Ptgsayl embalming the body before removing all the guts and internal organs and saved. And then dried the body in a bath of natron salts, a move which takes 40 days after Tdmk perfumes and oils. They will be ready to be wrapped mummy ligament. Used several meters away from the tapes made of linen fabric of this process which may take a period of up to 15 days. In the end, a shroud covering the body was found in place in several other strips of linen. Since the Middle Kingdom and beyond were placed on the painted mummy masks when they are ready to be placed in the coffin. The entire process takes 70 days. 

Central State 

Under Pepi II last ruler of the old state cross-legged on the throne of the country for a long time, and at 94 years. In the custody of the authorities started to King shrinking and began to provincial governors to control the reins. This was followed by a shift in power series of years of decline in water levels of the Nile, where the river was does not meet the usual Pfidhanath. Which led to the spread of chaos in Egypt, the country was divided and war broke out over about 140 years. 
This era, known as the first argument epoch. Montuhotep and enable the first who was king of the kings of the south at Thebes (Luxor) to re-unite the country again. 
It was marked the beginning of the custody of the state average. Mentuhotep ruled 50 years, during which the accuracy of the sentence to a new era of peace and prosperity, the state continues to average 250 years marked only where the rule of the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty. At a time of active trade with East Asia and the South. Constructed "walls of Prince" defensive to secure the country from nomadic tribes that invade the country in anticipation of Alaslabkadmp from Asia to attempt to infiltrate the Delta from the East. And ended when the state average in about 1785 BC era began the second argument. The other is characterized by chaos and confusion, two of the parameters of the rule of the Hyksos, who established a family of fifteen. And those who came from the east and took on the Delta, one of the regions of Egypt and continued to rule a hundred years. Hyksos were expelled from Egypt by two referees are good: Camus, Ahmose. Camus captured the capital of the Hyksos Evaris, while his younger brother, Ahmose chased them out of Egypt and the IAEA from the princes of Thebes, who had controlled Egypt formed the Eighteenth Dynasty. Thus began the era of the modern state 

The modern state 
  
Focused first kings of the Eighteenth Dynasty efforts to strengthen the defense on the border, is the need to include all of Nubia, which they called "Kush" and Syria under their control. Having achieved this important era began for outstanding modern state is booming. It took that time period from 1554 BC to 1070 BC. People were treated the pharaohs of the modern state that they are gods walking on earth they built huge temples and castles strong that still exist in Egypt until today, such as Thutmose III, Ramses II, Ramses III, Akhenaten, Queen Hatshepsut and the end of this State to indicate the end of civilization Witch of Ancient Egypt. 

Hatshepsut: the most famous queen of ancient Egyptian 

You Hatshepsut sister-sister and wife of Tuthmosis II. When this king died in office from a number of boy and his son Thutmose III, Hatshepsut, but continued to dominate the power in the country as a testament to the throne. I enjoyed her life of Hatshepsut: The Queen and Pharaoh sent ships in the business tasks to bring exotic goods. When Hatshepsut ruled as king love her name removed and scraped off all forms of evidence and consequences in the Kingdom. Perhaps its claim to be King - and not just the Queen - is the cause of confusion in the concepts about the sanctity of the Egyptian Pharaoh King. But the unique temple built in her honor stands witness to its age 

Akhenaten 

When the accession of King Amenhotep IV began an era of revolution, religious and cultural rights in Egypt. I have distanced himself from the worship of the god old Amon and his priests, and the adoption clinic sun disk Aten, and declared that the furnace is the one God with the exception of Ra, which is part of the sunlight of the god Amun. He also announced he is the only one who can speak with a furnace, but this does not need the presence of priests, and changed his name to Akhenaten from Amonhtib server, which means furnace. In the end, ban the worship of the god Amun, closed the temples of the Holy. In the sixth year of the reign of Akhenaten and his beautiful wife Nefertiti, Queen of the transfer of capital from Thebes to a new capital in Middle Egypt called Akhetaten - approved furnace - the Tel el-Amarna current. Akhenaten and money to the attribution of the rule of the country to follow the others to devote to the exercise of religious interests. When he died, and died with him religious changes and returned Egypt to the traditional gods and priests. 

Tutankhamun 

Not scientists know a lot about Tutankhamun before the discovery of his tomb on 26 of the month of November 1922 and Tutankhamun is one of the kings of the Eighteenth Dynasty is likely to be the son of Akhenaten, his name at birth was Tutankhamun's roar, but the last section of the name change to be " Amon "After returning to the old religion and the worship of the god Amun as the greatest. Pharaoh remained for nearly ten years until he died in around 1250 BC. After years of archaeological work masterpieces unearthed the tomb of Tutankhamun and the transfer of most of the Egyptian Antiquities Museum in Cairo. Today it is a lot of exposure in museums around the world 

Ramses the largest 

The Egyptians were led by their king, Ramses the great bulk of them much stronger. Publicized accounts of many of the pharaoh Ramses II and his battles against the Hittites on the Egyptian border in Syria. In his youth participated Ramses father Seti I in his wars against the Hittites, and learn from him how to be a successful governor. Witnessed the first period of the reign of Ramesses the ongoing war with the Hittites. But when he realized he was the commander of the two countries, there will be no real victor of the peace offenses. Still remain and the peace treaty can be seen today carved on the walls of the Temple of Karnak. Was the greatest work of the two great temples of Ramses Structural, who carved at the foot of Mount Abu Simbel in Nubia. And largest temples sitting on the façade of four huge statues of the king, a rise of 18 meters. And when he died of Ramses II in a ninety-Amra was buried in the Valley of the Kings near Thebes 

Ramses III 

In the reign of Ramses III suffered the peoples "of the surrounding area in Egypt" from the unrest. When the dashed hopes in the search for the land settled by the House fighting among themselves and then turned to fight the Hittites powerful in Asia, even defeated them. And united powers and turned their faces toward the valley fertile in Egypt. And all these known as the "Raiders of the Sea" Ramesses shall have to face the threat of land and sea. and the rule of Ramses nearly 31 years and survived a plot to assassinate him and he died during the trial of the conspirators and his death ended the last era of the great pharaohs of Egypt 

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