18‏/03‏/2011

Egypt, the cradle of civilization ... (2




Cleopatra: Last Ptolemies


After a lot of family disputes, and many of the assassinations have stepped up to the throne of Egypt, daughter of Ptolemy XII, which was seven years old and claims to Cleopatra VII. Topped Cleopatra's throne on the condition to marry Okhahabtlemus XIII. And agreed to this, but it was not long even tried her brother and the men Tile sequestered from the throne. ran away Cleopatra to Syria and returned Army sent Ptolemy's army to confront them, but did not engage the two armies. At this time arrived in Julius Caesar in the wake of his enemy Mumbai who came asking for help from Ptolemy, but Bmobai assassinated and became Caesar is already in a position to choose between any of the rulers of Egypt support is provided. and chose Cleopatra. And became Cleopatra then governor of Egypt and a friend of Rome with a mighty force and to preserve the traditions inherited ruled Cleopatra with her younger brother Ptolemy XIV, but was born a child named Ptolemy XV Reich claimed that the Son of Caesar - and then went to live in Rome at the invitation of Caesar. And after that assassinated Caesar, Egypt became the subject of the struggle for power between the heirs of Caesar are Octavian and Mark Antony and sided with Cleopatra to the side, Mark Antony, who Ahqth. remained Kfatta battle Taatorjuhan from side to side even hiked Marc Antonio of fighting for unknown reasons and the right of vessels Cleopatra in the sea. and Tardahma Octavian in Egypt until the following year where he entered Alexandria victorious, and in order to avoid the humiliation of Octavian Cleopatra committed suicide that has embraced the poisonous snake to her breast. and Mark Antony killed himself that another fit, to pass his sword. The Octavian buried them together in Alexandria.


Alexandria Library

Library of Alexandria was one of the wonders of the world that are found in Egypt. During the period known epoch spread Hellenistic Ptolemaic Egypt in the love of knowledge and research made famous by the age Alhllenevossoa library in Alexandria and Egypt have made it one of the educational centers in the ancient world. And formed part of the Library and Research Unit, known as the Museum or the Museum of Alexandria. And continued to the library and museum Qaimin for several centuries, but were destroyed in the year 200 AD during the civil war.

Egypt under the Romans

When she died of Cleopatra and Mark Antony died in Rome caused Egypt became something like a personal One Man Village of the Emperor Octavian (who later became August) them to just another province. The Roman emperors who took power after August of the self-proclaimed pharaoh to preserve the appearance of legitimate kings of Egypt. "As for Egypt, which knew the real Pharaohs has ended when the last Egyptian Pharaoh is Nectanebo II died in 242 BC. Egypt was part of a prosperous parts of the Empire, Romanian, became a wealthy right has built in several new cities and months installations in Egypt in the Roman era, the so-called haunted Pharaoh Booth Trajan and this effect was built on the island of Philae Trajan, the Roman governor who ruled from 1998 until in 117 AD. And Egypt continued to enjoy her wealth until the end of the century. And then in the era of Komudas in 180 until 192 AD, had to support supplies from Egypt to Rome other supplies from North Africa. At the same time landed value of the currency in circulation in Egypt. And then divided the empire into two Romanian: Department of the east and another west. Valimbrator Diovlishean stop system ruled Egypt as a separate province and make it part of the Eastern Empire. Here, Egypt is divided into three estates: the good and groundwater and Egypt Egypt Kulaih cat. In 341 AD, formed a new province on behalf of August and was renamed the province of Hercules to be Arcadia. Governs the country and became a civilian last military ruler. Egypt and handled currency used in all parts of the empire and its things took place on this for about for several centuries

Islamic state in Egypt

Egypt was a country which was the Byzantine capital, Constantinople (Istanbul) and the Egyptians were firing on them Roman (who is the Roman rulers of Rome).
The Egyptians were suffering from Roman rule, where they impose taxes on them are many and persecuted religious doctrine espoused by the Copts in Egypt.

Led by Amr Ibn al-Muslim armies for the conquest of Egypt, marched from Syria even entered the El-Arish, and then to Alvarama (near Port Said) which opened in 640 AD then progress until he reached the Bilbeis, open, and then to Ain Shams, where a victory for the Roman fortress of Babylon in ancient Egypt, Vhazareth Amr ibn Aas to be surrendered to the Romans after 6 months. Thereafter the Amr ibn al-Aas to Alexandria which was the capital of the Byzantine Empire in Egypt, open, and left the Romans and began to rule the Islamic state in Egypt. Bani Amr Ibn El-Aas new capital of Egypt Fustat and he called it next to the fortress of Babylon, and so moved the capital from Alexandria. The Bani Amr bin Aas first mosque in Egypt, the mosque known as the Mosque of Amr ibn al-Aas in the neighborhood of Old Cairo

Saladin and the Crusaders

The Crusades began in 1096 and lasted two hundred years.

Random Christians to create their own state around Jerusalem and were able to achieve when they captured the Holy City in the first crusade to wage war in 1099 and in 1168 attacked the Crusaders in Syria, Egypt, he sent Slcan SA Kurdish leader to Egypt to help Christians in the output of them. Crkoh appointed to the post of a minister or a prime minister I have the ruling Fatimid but not Tmhlp away.

And each has his successor his nephew in the position of the minister and the name of this man is Saladin. It should be noted that Saladin was a warrior and sultan of Egypt and a hero in the battles of Islam against the Crusaders. Consolidated power in Egypt of the Ayyubid family. Also build the city of Cairo, he returned and built the castle, which oversees the city since the twelfth century. Salah al-Din died in 1193 and over the next twenty years fought many wars against the Crusaders, and after the failure of the seventh crusade left Egypt and would have ended its role in the Crusades. The re-Sunni Ayyubid straight in the Islamic faith to the country and made Egypt a center of Islamic learning and culture again. Mamluks also brought into the country in large numbers.

Mamluk

In other words, Mamluk slaves who were brought for the first time to Egypt in the reign of Salah al-Din and his uncle. And then import them from outside the country of Muslims in Europe and Asia and receive a basic education and embrace the Islamic religion and trained to be a soldier. And the relationship of a woman-owned model is familiar in the world of the slave, it was the closest ties of kinship to them to slavery. Completed family Ayyubid assassination last successors at the hands of factions Mamluks then elected one of them to be a new governor is the Epic large Mamluks, which began under the Mamluks in Egypt from 1250 to 1517. There were two families Hakmtan of the Mamluks: A family Bahri Mamluks, who ruled Egypt until 1382 and the family Mamluk Circassians. Formed them of the ruling class in Egypt, and them alone political rights. > What was the peasants in their view, merely the producers of food and other materials. The bank became the Mamluk era naval super power in the Islamic world. But in the era of the Mamluk Circassians down the fate of Egypt so weakened the country's large number of disputes and ended up opening the Ottoman Turks to Egypt.

Egypt under Ottoman rule

In Egypt, the Ottomans replaced the Mamluks solution Under the old system, all the land owned by the Crown chartered by the farmers and pay taxes. Goods and pay taxes in kind - any of the crops. In light of this system has been awarded a large portion of land to soldiers and senior clergy. The Ottomans tried to reduce the impact of taxes on peasants. They improved irrigation systems and Astsalhawwa more land for cultivation. Osendw and the process of collecting taxes to the tax collectors of the peasants who have been to pay a certain part of them to the Deputy of the Ottoman Sultan, and keep the rest for themselves. Under the new layer of landowners to the peasants have to pay more and more taxes. And entrusted the management to staff specialists in each village to be responsible for

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