18‏/03‏/2011

Mahatma Gandhi .. Advocate non-violence


Mahatma Gandhi .. Advocate non-violence


The spiritual leader of India
Mahatma Gandhi
Wahab Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi to spread his policy of peaceful resistance or
Non-violence, which lasted for more than fifty years of promises, and in years of his life
Recent increased interest in defending the rights of the Muslim minority and suffered for the separation of
Pakistan and saddened to acts of violence in Kashmir and called on Hindus to respect
The rights of Muslims, sparking the ire of some Mtasbehm fatal bullets fired by one of them
Claimed his life.

Birth and upbringing
Born Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, known as "Mahatma" (great any employer or self-
St.) on the second of October 1869 in Bandar Port Province
Gujarat, India from a conservative family with a long tradition in political work, where he served
His grandfather and later his father was prime minister of the Emirate of Bandar Port, as it was for the family
Famous commercial projects. And spent a normal childhood and then married a third in
Years of age according to local Indian tradition and livelihood of this marriage of four
Children.

Study
Gandhi traveled to Britain in 1888, the study of law, In 1891 he returned them
To India after he received a bachelor's degree conferred upon him the exercise of the legal profession.

Ideological,
Gandhi founded what was known in the political world to "peaceful resistance" or the philosophy of nonviolence
(Alsatyaraha), a set of principles founded on religious and political
And economic at the same summed courage, truth and nonviolence, and aims to append
Defeat the occupier by a full and deep awareness of imminent danger and the composition of power
Able to face this threat to non-violence to violence first, and then if there is no other option.

Nonviolence is not a failure
Gandhi has made it clear that nonviolence is not a deficit or vulnerable, because "to refrain from
Punishment is not forgiveness only when the ability to punish List
Actually, "It does not also mean not to resort to violence at all," I had to resort to
Violence a thousand times if the alternative was castrating the entire human race. "The aim of the policy
Non-Violence in the opinion of Gandhi is to highlight the injustice of the occupation on the one hand and turn public opinion
This injustice on the other hand as a prelude to eliminate it totally or at least confined
And to prevent outbreaks.

Non-violent methods
And take the policy of non-violence are several methods to achieve the purposes of fasting and the province
And sit-ins and civil disobedience and accept the sentence and the lack of fear that they will lead
Methods until the end to the death.

Conditions for the success of non-violence
Gandhi is required for the success of this policy, discount the enjoyment of the rest of conscience and freedom of being able to open at the end of a substantive dialogue with the other party.

Books influenced Gandhi
Gandhi was influenced by a number of books had a big role in the development of philosophy
And his political positions, including "Song of Blessed," a Hindu epic poetry
Written in the third century BC and considered Gandhi as a spiritual dictionary
The basic reference of it guided by his ideas. Addition to the "Sermon on the Mount" in the Bible,
And the book "until the last man" of the English philosopher John Ruskin, who glorified the
Team spirit and work in all its forms, and book the Russian writer Tolstoy's "salvation
In yourselves, "which Zadeh conviction to fight Christian missionaries, and finally the book
American poet Henry David Toro "civil disobedience". It also seems influenced by Gandhi
Balbrihamanip which is a daily practice and aims to make a permanent human
Controls all the whim and senses by asceticism and the Hermitage and through food and clothing
Fasting and purification, prayer and humility and silence Monday of every
Week .. Through this practice to reach a human editor before it deserves the same
Edit others.
Gandhi said (I learned from Hussein (peace be upon him) to be oppressed and defeated)

His life in South Africa
Gandhi's search for suitable jobs in India exercised by way of specialization and to keep in
The same time the conservative principles that are reared by them, but was unsuccessful he decided to accept the
Exhibition of the work comes from a law firm in the "Natal", South Africa, and has already traveled
There in 1893 and was his intention to stay for one year only, but the situation
Indian community there made him modify it for the duration of survival and continued in that State
African 22 years.

Accomplishments there
South Africa was a British colony like India and by many of the Indian workers
Gandhi, who decided to defend their rights before the British companies which were
Where they work. The period spent in South Africa (1893 - 1915) of
The most important stages of intellectual development and political terms allowed him an opportunity to deepen their knowledge
And cultures and learn about the different religions and beliefs, and tested the method at work
Political proved effective against British colonialism. And influenced the scenes of discrimination
Racial, which was followed by whites against African indigenous owners of the country or against
Other colored groups living there. One of the fruits of his efforts at that time:

Restore confidence to the people of the Indian community and the CMS removed from the contract and the lack of fear and raise their level of ethics.
Create a newspaper "Indian Opinion" that he called across to the philosophy of nonviolence.
Party was established, "the Natal Indian Congress," through which to defend the rights of Indian workers.
Fight the law was denied Indians the right to vote.
Changing what was known as "Decree Asian" which imposed on the Indians themselves in the registration records.
Discourage the British Government for its intention to select the Indian immigration to South Africa.
Against the cancellation of contracts law marriage is not Christian.
Back to India
Gandhi returned from South Africa to India in 1915, and within a few years
NAP has become the most popular leader. The work focused on the struggle against General
Social injustice on the one hand and against colonialism on the other hand, and interested in particular with the problems
Workers, peasants, untouchables and considered the latter category, which he named "Sons of
God "is an affront to India not worthy of nation seeks to achieve freedom and independence
And deliverance from oppression.

Fast until death
Gandhi decided in 1932 to begin to fast until death to protest the bill
Enshrines discrimination against untouchables in the Indian elections, prompting leaders
Political and religious leaders to negotiate and reach a "Convention on the Puna" which ruled
Increase the number of deputies "untouchables" and the abolition of the electoral system of discrimination.

Positions of the British occupation
Characterized by the positions of Gandhi, the British occupation of the Indian subcontinent are mildly
Solid initial sometimes does not negate the tactical flexibility, and caused him moving
Between entrenched national positions and adjustments interim truce with his opponents, critical
And his supporters arrived in sometimes to the point of treason and to challenge the credibility of the national struggle by
Opposed to his style, for example, Gandhi's cooperation with Britain in the war
First World against the Axis powers and participated in 1918 at the request of the Governor
British in India Conference Delhi War, then moved on to direct opposition
British policy between 1918 and 1922 and a student during the period of independence
Full of India. In 1922 he led a civil disobedience movement has stepped up public anger, which
Reached in some cases to a clash between fans and security forces and the British police
Which caused him to stop this movement, however, and sentenced him to the British authorities
Sentenced to six years and then returned and released him in 1924.

Salt march
Gandhi challenged the British laws which limit the extraction of salt, the authorities
Which caused the British authorities in a quandary, and he led the march of a popular route to the
The sea to extract salt from there, and in 1931 ended the rebellion reached after
The parties to compromise and signed the "Treaty of Delhi."

To resign from the Congress Party
Gandhi decided in 1934 to resign from the Congress Party and was devoted to problems
Economic which was experienced by rural India, In 1937, encouraged the party to
Participate in the elections, saying that the Constitution of 1935 is a sufficient guarantee and an end
A minimum of credibility and impartiality.

In 1940 he returned to disobedience campaigns once again fired a new campaign to protest
Britain's announcement on the State of India to fight the armies of the Axis without compromising that
Independence, and continued disobedience until 1941, during which Britain was busy
World War II and is interested in restoration of conditions of India to have help in
The war effort. And about the danger posed to the Japanese authorities tried to British
Reconciliation with the Indian independence movement in 1942 sent a mission known as
As the "Cripps Mission", but failed in its bid, and the impact of that before Gandhi in
1943, the first time the idea of ​​entering India in a comprehensive war against the Axis Powers in the hope Neil
After independence, and he addressed the British famously "Let India and you
Masters, "but this speech did not like the British authorities then launched a campaign of arrests
And practiced all kinds of violent repression was Gandhi himself of his victims where he had been detained
Behind the bars of the prison and only released him in 1944.

Sadness over the partition of India
By the end of 1944 and early 1945 approached India's independence and increased
The fears of secessionist calls aimed to divide into two states between
Muslims and Hindus, Gandhi tried to persuade Mohammed Ali Jinnah, who was at the top
Advocates of the separation of reneging on its direction, but failed.

This has already been on 16 August 1947, and announced that prevailed until the partition of India
Religious riots across India, reached an end of violence exceeded all expectations fell
In Calcutta alone, for example, more than five thousand people. Has suffered
Gandhi to these events and considered a national disaster, also increased the pain of escalating
Tension between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, and numerous deaths in
Armed clashes that broke out between them in 1947/1948 and taking calls to re-
National unity between Indian and Muslim students in particular, the majority of
Hindu respect for the rights of the Muslim minority.

And death
Gandhi did not like calls of the majority Hindu respect the rights of the Muslim minority,
And considered by some Hindu fundamentalist groups treason so I decided to get rid of it
Indeed, in the January 30, 1948 was a Hindu fanatics three
Fatal bullets fell on the impact of Mahatma Gandhi at the age of fit, take up to 79 years.


Gandhi was chosen from within the Personal cent that changed the history of mankind

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