18‏/03‏/2011

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 


Saudi Arabia 

Flag logo 
National emblem: "No God but Allah, Mohammad is the Messenger of Allah 
National anthem: Viva the king 

DC 
(And largest city) Riyadh 
22 ° 42 'N a - 46 ° 43' E a 
Official language Arabic 
Regime is an absolute monarchy based on the application of Islamic law 
King and Prime Minister Abdullah Bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud 
Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister Sultan bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud 
Second Deputy Prime Minister Nayef bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud 
Legislative Saudi Council of Ministers 
Foundation 
- Establishment of the First Saudi State (founder Muhammad ibn Saud) 1744 
- The establishment of the second Saudi state (Founder Turki bin Abdullah), 1824 
- Establishment of the state of the third Saudi founder Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman 1926 
- Recognized by the May 20, 1927 
- Unification of the Kingdom September 23, 1932 
Space 
Total 2,149,690 km 2 (14) 
829 996 square miles 

Population 
- 2010 census 27,123,977 [1] 
- Population density 11 / km 2 (205) 
29 / sq mi 






Currency Saudi Riyals (SAR) 
Time Zone Arabic Standard Time (UTC +3) 
- Summer (DST) (UTC +3) 


Internet icon. Sa 
International dialing code 966 


Saudi Arabia Arab state system of monarchy located in the Arabian Peninsula and account for three-fifths of the area, bordered to the north of Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, and East UAE, Qatar, Bahrain and the Persian Gulf, and south of the Sultanate of Oman and Yemen. To the west of the Red Sea. 
Characterized by the Arabian Peninsula, is strategically located between three continents, the largest located in the northern half of the planet home to many civilizations, the cradle of the messages of the heavenly. Has flourished within the borders of the Kingdom of civilizations mentioned some of the Qur'an such as the debtor, as well as the civilization Thamud Ela and that their impact is still present even today in the region known as Madain Saleh, in Najran find a groove, who spoke on the Koran when the owners of the groove. 
In this island, which was an important trade corridor and a way for convoys and the spread of Islam in the heart of the Arabian Peninsula and later spread to other parts of the world until he reached Africa, Asia and part of Europe over the centuries the prosperity of the Islamic Caliphate. 
And passed hundreds of years, appeared in the States, and States still, and Muslims, in turn, cultural history, which is crossed by modern human civilization from the dark ages, and the spread of Islam in various parts of the earth. Although the driving time away from the city of Medina and the Arabian Peninsula in general, has the latest effects played a role in that took place after the events of the holy lands has been a destination for pilgrims and Umrah performers and visitors. 
Contents 
1 Date of Saudi Arabia 
2 Geography 
3 surface 
3.1 Hijaz and Asir mountains 
3.2 plateau, we find 
3.3 sandy deserts 
3.4 eastern coastal plain 
4 Climate 
5 religions 
6 administrative division 
7 Key Cities 
8 Calendar 
9 Transfers and Transport 
9.1 Maritime Transport 
9.2 Air Transport 
10 military sectors 
11 Education 
12 Cultural and social life 
13 economy 
13.1 Natural Resources 
13.2 Industry 
13.3 Agriculture 
13.4 Foreign Trade 
14 connections 
15 Information 
15.1 Arts and Letters 
15.2 Newspapers 
16 Sports 
17 holidays and festivals 
17.1 Religious Holidays 
17.2 National Holidays 
18 global ranking 
19 photos 
20 References 
21 External links 
 History of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 
In the reign of Prince Mohammed bin Saud appeared Salafist call and logo that is no god but Allah, Mohammad is the Messenger of Allah an advocate of unification of the pure phase, which believes that it is shirk and innovations, appeared this call, we find under the rule of the Al Saud and Sheikh Mohammed bin Abdul Wahab was the first in Dir'iya and continued to expand Emirate Dir'iya even covering the whole area, in 1818 --1,233 AH went the old army consisting of soldiers dairy order of Muhammad Ali Pasha, but he did not continue in which only a year and some of the year, then returned to it again after the death of his brother, Abdullah bin Faisal, and that was 1306 e / 1888. And entered the field in this period, Prince Mohammed bin Rashid Hail Amir, who then extend its control over a significant portion of the Arabian Peninsula and the Ottoman government in Istanbul, strongly supported by the stand in the face of the Al Saud. And ended the second period of the mandate of the Imam Faisal Abdul Rahman to leave Riyadh with his family so he headed to Qatar to Bahrain and then to Kuwait and was among the family members one of his sons Abdul Aziz, who was in the second decade of life. As soon as he arrived Abdul Aziz with his father to Kuwait until he began to think about returning to Riyadh. 
   

Able to enter the King Abdul Aziz in Riyadh on the fifth day of the month of Shawwal 1319 AH, corresponding to January 17, 1902. And managed to open Riyadh, and overcomes his opponents Al Rashid, was also able to Abdul Aziz included Ahsa, Qatif, the rest of Najd and the Hijaz at the hands of the Brotherhood under the leadership of Sultan bin Bejad between 1913-1926. And Abdel-Aziz on the eighth of January 1926 the property of the Hijaz, and I knew the kingdom after the name of Kingdom of Hejaz, Najd and accessories. In 1934, war broke out ended with the annexation of the territory of Yemen and Asir Jzemn the Empty Quarter desert. Was released in September 23, 1932 AD, 21 Jumada II 1351 AH Royal Decree Standardization of provinces of the State which has become under this Decree to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and this has become history in the post-National Day of the Kingdom. To take over the rule of King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, King of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 
Not clear landmarks force Abdul Aziz military and political supremacy in economic terms until the discovery of oil in the country in 1938. Software development and modernization, which was delayed due to World War II in 1939, and began in earnest in 1946. Oil contributed to the prosperity of the Saudi economy and trade deals with the international community. 
Abdul Aziz universally adopted a policy of neutrality. Where he refused to join the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the League of Nations, and that from 1916 until his death in 1953 did not come out of the Kingdom except for three formal occasions, one of which was a meeting with U.S. President Roosevelt. The last thing he realized the importance of Abdul-Aziz and realistic political community was the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1945 one of the founding members of the League of Arab States also joined the United Nations. 
Such as the death of Abdul Aziz, in 1953, realized the difficulties that could face the kingdom after him, so he qualifies his eldest son Saud to become king after him, in collaboration with his brother Faisal, who characterized him and his policies of economic diplomacy. 
Saud assumed the throne after the death of his father, Abdul Aziz, in 1953. In 1960 came the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to economic risks because of the economic policy of Saud unbalanced. A result of the piece met the sons of Abdul Aziz and some scientists and decided to wrest power peacefully Saud, Faisal delivered to. He left the Kingdom of Saud to the State of Greece, and died there and is the reign of King Faisal and Faisal same icon in the Arab and Muslim under his valiant of the Islamic world issues and the issue of Palestine and the position of the oil. King Faisal was assassinated in 1975 by his nephew, called Faisal bin Assistant. Followed by Faisal in power his brother, King Khalid, had his reign, which spanned seven years has followed the expansion and achievements and to improve relations and developed the Kingdom in the economy and many of the use of oil in his reign, has been faced with courage Juhayman and his followers occupied the Grand Mosque was the opening of King Khaled International Airport and his reign the shortest time from the era of the kingdom until now, but followed the achievements written in his article, and died in 1982, following a heart attack and was followed by his brother, King Fahd in his time entered the country in the upswing by virtue of its culture and its relationship with excellent Amricaotad phase, the longest in the history of Saud and the most events since the time of his brother, Faisal, and included his interest in Two Holy Shrines Tusathma and his death was 2005. He took after him, the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz. 
 Geography 


Satellite image of the Arabian Peninsula showing 

Site, including Saudi Arabia and the most important terrain 

Saudi Arabia is located in the largest part of the peninsula and the most prominent surface features include the following: 
Sarawat mountain range in the west, stretching along the country from north to south, and is called the northern part of the Hijaz and Asir, including the southern part, and goes high at the highest point about 3680 m above sea level. 
Narrow coastal plain called the Tihama, separates Sarawat Mountains and the Red Sea. 
Najd Plateau, a large rocky hill located to the east of the mountains of the Hijaz and height ranges between 320 m and 1200 m, interspersed with sand and lead to greater canyons as proof from north to south, and there is a mountain in the north of Aja and Salma. 
Broad coastal plain in the east, dominated by drought, with the exception of two major Ahtin Ahsa and Qatif, and this area was called in the past the territory of Bahrain. 
Sea sand is populated mainly Empty Quarter in the south of the country, and lead to greater large in the north, and extending between the narrow strip of sand called Nafud Dahna desert. 
Tracking of the Kingdom of the island in 1300, including 1150 Island in the Red Sea and 150 islands in the Persian Gulf, the most important of the Knights Islands near Jizan and Tarot Island near Qatif. 
Mountain range (Nasharti) in the region of Tabuk. 

 Kuwait, Iraq • Jordan's Red Sea 
Persian Gulf • Qatar northern Red Sea 
East-west Saudi Arabia 
South 
 United Arab Emirates Yemen • Amman, Red Sea 

 Surface 
Saudi Arabia is located in the south-west of the continent of Asia extended over an area of ​​approximately 2.27 million km ², which is equivalent to about four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, almost. It is bordered by the Red Sea to the west and north of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and Iraq, and Kuwait, to the east and the Persian Gulf state of Qatar and the United Arab Emirates and the Sultanate of Oman, and South Yemen. The length of the borders of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from all sides, including 6760 km 4430 km land border and 2330 km of coastal boundaries. 
And mainly on the territory of the country's drought-free rivers or waterways permanent. Although the dry valleys in most parts of flood water after rainstorms, but that the actual value of water is weak, either due to evaporation or due to leakage into the ground. 
The Saudi territory geographically museum includes many of the morphologies of the mountains, plateaus and volcanic cones and Herat and the deep valleys and coastal plains are low and the veins of sand and coral islands. It consists of those physical manifestations of most of the rocks known. And surface features can be divided in the country into four geographic regions natural key: 
Hijaz and Asir mountains 
Najd Plateau. 
Sahara sand 
The eastern coastal plain. 
 Hijaz and Asir mountains 
It is composed of igneous or metamorphic old and covered in some parts Aharat volcanic. And extends along the Red Sea and the coastal plain length of 1700 km from the Gulf of Aqaba and the border with Jordan in the north to the border with Yemen in the south. As they descend sharply toward the West and gradually towards the east, and narrow in the north, but it expands to the south offer ranges between 40 and 240 km. Featuring the mountains to be going in chains parallel and bear several names, where known as the northern part of the mountains of the Hijaz, because it is reserved between the coastal plain and within the Arabian Peninsula, and is called the southern part of the mountains of Asir, to the distress passed and the intensity and nakedness, and you know their ranges high as the Mountains of Sarawat or Sarat Asir, where the rise in the country's highest peak Mount in Souda near the city of Abha to 3678 m above sea level. And down from the mountains of Asir and Hijaz valleys hundreds of the most famous valleys of Najran, Jizan, Bisha and Fatima, carnelian, and Ramma. Some of which spent its waters into the sea, including the water flowing towards the inside. These basins are characterized by valleys as hubs for agricultural activity because of the floods that take place where the carrying of large amounts of silt. 
 Najd Plateau 
Occupies the Golan, we find the center of the country, stretching over an area of ​​482 thousand km ². And consists of the western section of rock amorphous, metamorphic, and includes Mount fennel, which rises to more than 1,300 m above sea level, and consists of Nthoein Ckrien heading from the north-east to south-west and between the fertile plain and abundant water width 70 km is located the city of Hail. The eastern section is the most important, is composed of sedimentary rock, sand and limestone layers containing water-bearing underground Troy important agricultural lands in the areas of Al-Qaseem, Sudair, tattoos, and the viewer and output and creeks, and others. The collarette mountains in this section, the backbone of the hill and find the most prominent phenomenon of the terrain, a mountain mural is one of the longest ribs rock related on the surface of the earth Alcuesta where up to 1,100 km in length extending from north to south. And are difficult to find many highland valleys over the lengths of some of the most famous valleys hundreds of kilometers: Hanifa and subcontractors and Sarhan. And to the east of the plateau, we find a range of hills stretching the most important of the Golan Heights and Aldbdbp Alsman gravel consisting of sandstone and clay. 
 Sand desert 


Empty Quarter desert 
Sand covering large areas of the country due to the activity of erosion, erosion and sedimentation by fragmenting soft rock and formed the lowlands in the form of sediment basins filled with sand. One of the main sandy deserts as follows: 
Khali basin wide low one of the largest sand desert on earth as it related to an area of ​​640 thousand km ² extending from the highlands of the Hijaz and Asir highlands in the west to Oman in the east, and the Najd Plateau north to the border with Yemen in the south. In spite of the harsh natural environment in this region and the absence of human activity, but it is replete with large endowments of oil and natural gas, radioactive minerals, sand, glass and solar energy, which is no longer free as the name suggests this, they spread the centers and stations, the national oil company and roam the aircraft and vehicles skies and land excavated for mineral savings. 
Dahna desert of the San desert extends from the Empty Quarter and the surrounding plateau, we find from the east heading towards the north and a length of 1,200 km and breadth ranges between 25-80 km. Dahna is composed of red sand dunes are located between parallel breaks of rock. 
Nafud great desert to the north of the country, an area of ​​56.320 km ², which is hollow and filled with large piles of sand and rocky areas sandwiched between the solid parts of the hills. Featuring longitudinal desert sand dunes known as red veins. And he crossed the eastern part of the famous pilgrimage route, Darb Zubaydah, the link between Iraq and the Hijaz. 
 The eastern coastal plain 
The length of the coastal plain, Saudi Arabia's Persian Gulf about 500 km and average width 60 km. And is characterized as low and does not reach much above sea level, so a busy and land salt marshes and sand hills. And are adjacent waters to the Gulf Coast as a shallow, which led to the emergence of bays and capes and be coral reefs, and to the rich fish and pearls, who form the livelihood for the inhabitants of the territory for many centuries. However, the region gained the advantage of great economic strategy after the discovery of oil, since oil fields containing marine, land, and one of the largest known oil reserves in the world. And follows the coastal plain toward the inside Ahsa plains consisting of sand and gravel-rich water springs and wells that irrigate the agricultural areas are important. 
Climate 
Varied climate in Saudi Arabia from one region to another due to Extension to areas of the Kingdom of the degrees of view spaced vary the highs and lows from one place to another but that is noted on the climate of the Kingdom in general, it is very hot in summer very cold winter; This is because most of the territory of the Kingdom and is located in the territory of the region warm and exposure to cold winds, so temperatures in the winter. 
In the center of the country, the climate is continental, winter cold and summer heat and drought (48 degrees Celsius in Riyadh and the relative humidity does not exceed 9% in July), while coastal areas Vstewha warm summers and is characterized by strongly temperature and humidity. Either in the highlands of Asir atmosphere characterized by a mild summer and cold in the winter and ambiance accompanied by fog, with monsoon rains throughout the summer months. The rest of the country where the rain and fall unevenly between the public and the other in the winter months and early spring due to adverse wind. 
 Religions 
Islam is the official religion in Saudi Arabia, the majority of the Kingdom's population of Sunnis and the group (four schools). There is also a Shi'ite minorities (known Balitnaashrip) stationed mostly in the eastern region and the other in the region of Najran (and they know Ismailia). 
 Administrative division 

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Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 districts called (SAR) or (Emirate): 
Riyadh - the headquarters of the emirate - the capital Riyadh, a 
Eastern Region - the headquarters of the emirate - Dammam 
Mecca - the headquarters of the emirate - Makkah 
Asir region - the seat of the emirate - Abha 
Patio area - the headquarters of the emirate - Patio 
The northern border area - the headquarters of the emirate - Arar 
Al-Jouf region - the seat of the emirate - Skaka 
Madinah - the headquarters of the emirate - Medina 
Qassim region - the seat of the emirate - Buraydah 
Hail - the headquarters of the emirate - Hail 
Jazan region - the seat of the emirate - Jazan 
Najran - the headquarters of the emirate - Najran 
Tabuk Region - the headquarters of the emirate - Tabuk 
 Major Cities 


Riyadh 
The number of cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia about 14 main city of approximately: 
Makkah - the holy city and kiss the Muslims and is located on the western side. Its population is estimated at more than a million and a half people. 
Medina - the holy city and the incubator of the Mosque of the Prophet, which is located the tomb of the Prophet of Islam 
And embrace this most holy city's most famous mosques of the Islamic mosque of Quba, a mosque-Aqsa Mosque. And an estimated population of more than one million people with the presence of thousands of visitors, the city is located in western Saudi Arabia. 
Riyadh - the capital and seat of government and is located in the center of the Kingdom. The estimated population of more than five million people. 
Jeddah - Saudi Arabia's second largest city. The estimated population of more than three million people. The economic capital of the Kingdom is also the gate of the Two Holy Mosques. 
Dammam - Located on the east coast. Is the port of the country's east, overlooking the Persian Gulf. And discovered the first oil well is called good and well I grew up after the discovery of Dammam and Azkt importance became the headquarters of the oil fields (both in the marine waters of the Gulf, or land in the deserts of the Empty Quarter and Dahna) and an estimated population of more than one million people. 
The largest cities in terms of population 
(2009) 
Million. 
Riyadh 6.5 
Jeddah 3.9 
Mecca 1.8 
1.6 City Riyadh Jeddah Mecca 
Al-Ahsa 1.4 145px 145px 
Dammam 1.3 
Taif 1.1 
Tabuk 0.8 
Buraydah 0.7 
Khamis Mushayt 0.6 
Abha 0.5 
0.4 Dammam Khobar City News 
 Calendar 
Based in the Kingdom of the official history of the lunar calendar, based on the migration of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him from Mecca to Medina. The Hijri year (354 days) is divided into twelve lunar months (used in festivals and religious occasions), but companies in the UK rely on the Gregorian calendar. 
The official weekly holidays in Saudi Arabia: Thursday and Friday, a holiday Eid al-Fitr, the holiday of Eid al-Adha, "Pilgrimage", and the National Day which falls on September 23 (1 balance) per annum. 
 Transport and Communications 
Saudi Arabia has the largest network of routes in the Middle East [3] as diverse as roads, sea and air it on the road, she has a network of highways linking the Gulf east, passing through the capital Riyadh to the Red Sea in the west, and north to the Jordanian border to Jizan in the south and a Total length of roads for more than (48) thousand kilometers [citation needed] between highways and double and single-cities As for inside the cities, most major cities and provincial capitals [citation needed] has a network of highways Aldirip For railways there are railway link between King Abdul Aziz Port in Dammam and the Dry Port in Riyadh and pass-Ahsa, Abqaiq, Dhahran and instigated. 
 Maritime Transport 


Jeddah Islamic Port 


King Abdul Aziz Airport in Jeddah, International 


Airport Prince Mohammad Bin Abdul Aziz International Airport in Madinah 


Airport King Fahd bin from the inside 


King Fahd International Airport from abroad 
Ports in the Kingdom is divided into a number of species, perhaps most important: 
Commercial Ports: King Abdul Aziz Port in Dammam - Jeddah Islamic Port - King Fahd Port in Jubail - King Fahd Port in Yanbu - Port of Jizan. 




 Air transport 

Airports International: 
Airport, King Fahd Bin Abdul Aziz in Dammam. 
Airport King Khalid bin Abdul Aziz in Riyadh 
King Abdul Aziz Airport in Jeddah. 
Airport Prince Mohammad Bin Abdul Aziz al-Madina 
The regional airports are: 
Abha Regional Airport in Asir region. 
Hail Regional Airport in Hail. 
Qassim Regional Airport in Qassim. 

Tabuk Regional Airport Tabuk. 
Taif Regional Airport in Mecca 
And local airports are: 
Qaisumah Domestic Airport in the Eastern Province. 
Al-Ahsa Domestic Airport in the Eastern Province. 
Al-Jouf Domestic Airport Jouf region. 
Gurayat Domestic Airport Jouf region. 
Airport Jandal local Jawf region. 
Arar Domestic Airport area of ​​the northern border 
Rafha Domestic Airport area of ​​the northern border. 
Tarif, the local airport's northern border region. 
Airport face the local region of Tabuk. 
Ela local airport in the Medina. 
Yanbu Domestic Airport in Medina. 
Baha Domestic Airport Al-Baha. 
Bisha Domestic Airport in Asir region. 
Najran Domestic Airport in Najran. 
Sharorah the local airport in Najran. 
Dawadmi the local airport in Riyadh. 
Valley Airport and local propellants in Riyadh. 

  













Royal Saudi Air Force 
Royal Saudi Naval Forces 






The General Presidency of Meteorology and Environment Protection 

National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development 


Border Guard 
General Investigation 
Passports 
Special Security Forces 
Drug Enforcement Administration 

Prisons 
Civil defense 
 Education 












  





Of the famous dishes in Saudi Arabia is KaBsEh, in addition to Ghozi and Mende. Arabic coffee is one of the most important traditions of Saudi society and one of the most important aspects of hospitality, which are usually presented with the dates, which vary greatly mismatch types of diabetes, and other Algosaimi addition to securing dates. As well as tea is Arab, which is often mixed with mint one of the habits of the Saudi society and that is to drink in the informal meetings between friends and family to formal meetings Khflat engagement and wedding. 


 Economy 





 Natural Resources 

 Industry 




 Agriculture 
All of these efforts moved the country from the stage of import most of its food to the two phases of self-sufficiency and export some types of food commodities such as wheat. The total production of wheat in 1991 to 3.8 million tonnes after it was not to exceed 3,000 tons in 1970. And the cultivated area multiplied nearly four times over 17 years of growing at 385 thousand hectares in 1393 AH, 1973 to about 1.4 million hectares in 1411, 1990, distributed 73% for cereals, vegetables, fruit and feed 27%. 


  



 Communications 



Internet 




Saudi Arabia is the world's fastest growing Internet markets. The number of Internet users jumped from 200.000 users in 2000 to 4.8 million users in 2006, which means that approximately 20% of the UK population use the Internet, but it is likely that number was increasing steadily year after year. 




STC 



 Information 

  


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 Sports 













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