18‏/03‏/2011

Indian Art


Indian Art



Where the mind is liberated from fear and mocked the head high, Where there is knowledge without restrictions, Where the world does not disintegrate into fragments separated parts from each narrow domestic walls, Where words start from the bottom of the truth, Where to extend the struggle that knows no fatigue his arms to embrace the ideal, And where they do not mislead the mind stream Alraiq Vibt way in the desert Almrdhulp habits, Where your mind starts thinking about and working to reach the growing paradise of freedom, Oh, I appeal to you to awaken and become aware of a national coma. It is an eternal message, suitable for all times, as is the Indian art immortal,



Thorough panoramic scene of a mosque Taj Mahal, topped by the entrance, which was intended to highlight the architectural designer with white marble and red sandstone mosque has taken the shape rectangle and above the four corners four Jawasag


Nothing is more indicative of the breadth of the word art loose dress of this encyclopaedic book, which provides a brief picture on the magnitude of the sculpture, architecture, drama and music in the Indian subcontinent. Seed huge (433 pages of broadsheet) recital in Symphony Triple Arts Far East, complemented by Dr. Tharwat Okasha, the arts of China and Japan, which at the same time part of the building built by one of the makers of contemporary Arab culture as related to art history: the eye hear, and ear You see, amounted to thirty-part.
The author begins his book a historical prologue necessary dealing with the emergence of the Indian people, those growing up that we feel have the most impact on Indian art itself.
The boom in the arts, including photography wall, and next to Alstoppe Buddhism built temples Hinduism relatively small solids, long-lasting, while the continued building temples rock for several centuries later, resorted artists in which to be inspired by previous work, with excessive use of patterns and motifs in the work of sculpture, photography as we see in the caves of Badami and Ojanth and Illorh, and to ensure that their carvings, elegant refinement of surfaces, and a commitment to the nature of art tends steadily towards the oriental spirit, so this is known as the Covenant on the right of the peak of Indian civilization. We can imagine the depth of religious consciousness in India, if we know that the time may save us more than a thousand and two hundred cavernous temple of temples, from among the thousands of temples built by Buddhists, as well as built Algiin and Brahmins.
Sub-continent Art
India representing the location, the island Tsafhaa waves four sides of the Art World, "says Dr. Tharwat Okasha, the building Hindu temples have their right to a lot of development after the era of Jobth, to become temple precincts takes the form of the tower surmounted by a vaulted ceiling or the twin towers of character, especially in the architecture of northern India in Bofaneshoarh, and Khajuarao, while the ceilings have been taken in southern India form a hierarchy, as is the case in Tanjur, and is no longer denied the temple building a stand-alone, but become a part only of a large group of buildings surrounded by all external wall.
After being raped family Cholh (840 - 1267) Governance in the region between Madorh, Madras, Mysore, collapsed state, and integrated within the highest of the southern provinces is a petty affair Vijanh Nger, which was also named as its capital, established in 6331. Has assumed responsibility for maintaining Indian culture to influence the invasion of Afghanistan and opening the Mughal family Hochalh (1110 - 1327) and the family Bndidh (1212 - 1327) then the Kingdom of Vijanh Nger that was wealthier, more than any other city in India, and the assumption by literature, the peak of what follows the peak of the Sanskrit language , and the accent people of the south, and soon the people that wore on Buddhism and embraced the doctrine of the Lordship of condemning the doctrines of the Brahmins Venco alone, without other employers Hinduism.
However, the golden age was soon extinguished Calth while crawling the Mongols from Central Asia towards the south, and undertook the Three Kingdoms fighting Mongol invaders until the year 1565 to their defeat Mongols Muslims are ordered, and founded after the conquest of the valley of the Ganges (Janjh) a powerful empire with quite severe re- for the third time in the history of India's political unity to the country.
Of the Buddha to Allnerfanah
If we are to take an example of external influences in the arts of India, let us portray the Buddha, one of the most important elements of art in the book of Indian art. It was the first years that followed the absence of the Buddha is the era of prohibition on filming, Fajlt terraces of the image is not of his bones. Hence, these terraces are the style of early Buddhist art, the artists did not provide the preparation of pictures or sculptures of the Buddha only after his death two centuries ago in the era of King Ohukh. And then squander the monks in the fabrication of the myths that claim that the artists have internalized image of the Buddha just look to the shade!
And thus did not begin filming a personal Buddha only during the transitional period after the emergence of Christianity, and is likely to archaeologists that due to the impact of art Almtogrq, published by the dynastic Greek royal in the north-west of India, imposed by the School Buddhist sculptures - Greek, which flourished in those regions, after the end Almtogrqp era, if the devise what they call Alobolloni Study of the Buddha. In general, one can say that allowing a person to represent the Buddha himself, has had a significant impact on most schools of contemporary art, and kept all of my school art; Mathorh Omarvati and the representation of ancient symbols, to represent the person next to Buddha.
We will find many of the sculptures Buddhism - Almtogrqp, both of the statues or reliefs among the ruins of temples Alstoppe the north-west of India, stands apart from sculptures Indian Pure, it is despite the fact that subjects Buddhism, the model Mtogrq, as well as the decoration includes next to some of the topics Indian purely-pattern formulas such as fans and palms leaves chromium, and two sons love, and statues of winged Alotalnt, and Corinthian capitals, which is interspersed with miniature statues of the Buddha, the Indian impact stresses.
We can identify the Buddha Alobolloni to tools and deals such as a lock of hair between the eyes, and the wheel of sacred canon shared between the palms of his hands, his hair Alamadfor behind his neck with a thread flour, which initially appeared to be wavy, then he became wrinkled, and marked his face nose Greek and eyebrows arched, eyes semi- Amoamadtin Almtomlten, and the excess hanging from one ear Aldkhmtin Alramzatin prince to the life of Buddha, as Tserbl the guise of monks, who seem Otoawh clearly.
While Tiger pages you will learn about many of the vocabulary of Indian thought, which entered the world in his art and philosophy, most notably: Alnrfanah. A Sanskrit term meaning very conclusion of the Buddhist thought, and shows in Indian philosophy in the courtyard of God adored, any self-yard in all, means linguistically vanishing, as is the case in the flame takes to subside with vacuum fuel. It is intended that all depression physical lust and self-degradation, which attaches the Odran of life in general, and the thrill of ecstasy and passion, and while the insured rise above this end desires to spiritual salvation and the Light, a Alnrfanah.
And almost of thought Buddhist commentators do not agree among themselves to one view, while some of them go to that Alnrfanah is the perception of one's nature, the nature of the Buddha, others go to Alnrfanah difficult fathom. If the significance is enlightenment, which is not possible only after falling to the truth and understand what they were - which requires a password at various stages to get rid of the soul from reincarnation, not death nor life again - this is very what is being said about them is found the road leading to it.
Indian Architecture: Book Art Open
Construction began on architecture Indian early wood, and soon the builders since the era of Ohukh that Hakoa this form early, with the use of bricks and stone, and formed the different types of roofs spherical shape, Alqbwat cylindrical, and windows Aljmalonep, columns conjoined walls and eaves as original models of wood. It was a normal - especially in the early stages - to be part of the Indian architecture was dug in the rock, dig in the sense that the silo in the middle of the lump of rock or remove the outer surface of the temple becomes a stand-alone. And still models of these temples to this day.
Perhaps the finest of these temples is the temple Hindu in Kaelach (the name of the paradise of God Cifa mountains of the Himalayas), where the diving builders about thirty meters into the rock to the formation of the temple, then turned to the walls to turning it into the columns stands and statues captivating sculptures and figures, also supplied the three aspects of the temple engraved Baklwat and chapels . It is known that the contract has never been used as an architect in the field of architecture before entering the Indian Mughal India, though used Altaqbip - a kind of monolithic stone roofing contracts between two parallel walls - in the building excavated in rock masses. There is also a special architectural styles used Alaqidtan Buddhism, the most famous Algiinip Alstoppe it soon acquired the stone is surrounded by fencing equipped with decorative carvings. The main components of Alstoppe is the dome, and a small room at ground level in the middle of Alstoppe to save ammunition Holy denied entry after the completion of the construction.


The form of the first and second centuries Almiladian a prosperous era for the arts in parts of India as a whole, evidenced by the perimeter fence Bstoppe Omarvati which carries the medallions and inscriptions carved up in the magnificence and beauty. The groups Sculpture maintained by the Museum of the City of Madras and the British Museum a treasure rich in referring to the greatness of Indian civilization during that time, where we see an account of inscribed to the stories of lives (Tqmsat) Buddha worldly previous Jatake, and the stories of Buddha's life and exploits Ovadhn that has not conceived in any other location, such as Panel interpretation of the dream of Maya and the painting of Buddha worship. And whereas there are schools of spices and Ojanth and Sanchi and other sites plates the relief narrative, unique school Omarvati Pachtiaradtha wise optimal Topics carvings that there is no way to find a parallel in any other location, as well as style, the total outstanding offer a complete picture of a particular subject without Turning to the details.
As a result of booming trade, and resulted in the prosperity of cities in the emergence of community well-being solvent-Moneim, starting from the first century AD. In spite of the prosperity of Buddhism in Western India, and even parts of Eastern, the Albrahmanip, it soon gained many of the preachers, and servants of the temples, and an enthusiastic supporter, and poured the temples donations, which was spent on the construction of more religious buildings and decoration. As well as the conditions it wants to show faith Altantryp in those days, Vgelb impact of innovations in the arts of magic that the Covenant. Also supplied some of the temples in the period between the sixth century to the ninth with plenty of erotic sculptures inspired by the book Alcamasutrh, which is replete with explicit sexual scenes and Alodat anomalies. As evidenced by the lingering effects of acts of worship, symbolized by the Almnheir, column Hermsi, that ancient history has also witnessed some acts of worship rave devoted to fertilization, and sent the dead to life, and that most of the gods of religions, the Mediterranean Sea with the sacraments - such as the doctrines of Dionysos, Hermes, Isis, Ishtar - Some features sexually explicit.
Indian civilization and to contribute to Islamic
When he established a back-Din Muhammad Babur - a descendant of Tamerlane invading Tatar father and Mongol invader Genghis Khan, either - the Islamic Mughal Empire in northern India on the ruins of the Sultanate of Dhli, move with the civilization of Islam. Babur was the founder of this family Mughal India, a Sunni Muslim, was born in Turkistan Pferganp far in 1483. When he was fourteen, his dream was to establish the Kingdom of her uncle in his mind, seized in 1500 Samarkand, but soon recovered from Uzbek. The biggest victory came in 1504 when he seized the cities of Kabul and Ghazni, and then led campaigns across five lanes invincible in the north-west India to Hindustan on the top ten of thousands of combatants. In 1526, his horsemen and artillery inflicted defeat each of Sultan Ibrahim Allodi Dhli Muslim, and Raja Joalbor Indian Banept near Dhli, not older than a year that had not been spent on armies allied to the Indian princes Rajputs, so perfected his grip on the Hindustan.
The increased attention manuscripts photographed with the introduction of Islam to India in the ninth century. On the contrary, murals and architectural decoration, it is possible to hide the manuscripts, and blocked from view in periods ranging, which has committed itself to the most intense among the clergy of the Muslims. Having been to Mohammed Ghouri northern India to open mouth of the River Ganges Janjh, set up his master Turkish Ghotbeddin APIC and automatically Dhli years, and I take this opportunity to the governor after the death of his master in 1206, the same governor Vensb years in northern India. This was the first Islamic state governor in India, known as the Mamluk state, followed by four Islamic countries, until the Mongol conquest of India.
Taj Mahal
May conclude this reading rotavirus of the Encyclopedia, Dr. Tharwat Okasha for Indian art to choose two models dealt with in some detail, the first reflects one of the verses of architecture, with a second uniqueness of human sensibility in Indian philosophy, which enveloped the literature. The first is the Taj Mahal, built by Shah Jahan mausoleum for his wife favorite and a symbol of eternal beauty, and the second of the poet, who described the shrine, saying: According to Shah Jahan that he had poured on the bank of the river a single tear stuck Bojunp time and I mean the Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore months.
Almost Visitor pass the main gate of the Group serves as the Taj Mahal, which reaches a height of about thirty meters, even read by the foreseeable harmonious studied carefully for parks, pools of water coordinated on the main canal, according to the form Persian is known as Chahar Bagh, a garden four, a model, which he quoted from the Persians Babur, the founder of Mughal India, in 1526.
Taj Mahal garden is divided into four sections by two long crossed channels, as each section is divided in turn into four sections less space, are all lined corridors paved with red sandstone. There is no doubt that this magnificent garden coordinated sober, to confer on this beautiful memorial place without limits. There is a vast basin of water from white marble, reflects the image of misty shadows of the building serves as the Taj Mahal, and rows of cypress trees adjacent to, such as the building ends with the president, including slightly more than ten meters, and no more than the depth of the water basin and the channels for a meter and a half. Page and Toshi water fountains in the form of flowers, was provided with underground drainage network, end tanks for storing water from the river goman to provide the basin and water channels, and irrigate the gardens.
The author says: how stunned the park known as the Persian Chahar Bagh masters of architects who specialize in the construction of shrines in Iran and India since a long time. Perhaps the four channels, which make up the Aljhar Bagh symbol of the rivers of Paradise, which is mentioned in the Qur'an: such as the Paradise promised to the righteous the rivers of water is putrid and rivers of milk did not change the taste and rivers of wine delicious to the drinkers, and rivers of honey in a refinery and they have all fruits and forgiveness from their Lord. All too often, the Persian poets - in particular, Hafez, Sa'di Shirazi Shirazi and Khosro ad - gardens, tables, and flowers they consider the symbols of the kingdom of God, and the Gardens of Delight, which promised the righteous. How many tables resembled rivers of Paradise Garden, flowers Bashaq share washing their feet with water flowing, and likened orchards river basins with water Kawthar albumin. As reflected suggest paradise when we look with water flowing, or when we look to the trappings of flowers emanating from the vases in the iwan funerary President remodeling, which seem to us to murals of marble carved in high relief of the vases bear different kinds of flowers, fruit, and clusters of vineyards, grapes, determined by the framework of marble inlaid with motifs combine floral and geometric formulas of semi-precious stones, and more correct to refer to heaven, he promised the righteous.
Rabindranath Tagore
Drawer most poets in ancient India on poetry in praise of kings and princes to give joy to their lives, and Izjae their leisure time. In contrast, there was also an elite of poets, who believe that poetry is the image sincere Secretary, which reflects the mystery of life, such as the poets Valmiki and Kalidasp, wise, medieval unswerving such a large and Nanak, and Chandidas, who have committed themselves in their poetry honesty and realism, and here gained their writings, and even personal behavior, credibility and symbolic importance does not reflect the essence of spree, but equally on how to disclose the crafting of this substance. When nearing the stage of feudalism in the history of India at sunset, and dawned the modern era, appeared on the horizon of India poet occupied the place and importance of the same, occupied by those former, a bright star Rabindranath Tagore, poet, author, novelist and playwright, musician and photographer, philosopher and mystic, educational, and social reformer, and Nobel Nobel Prize for Literature, the winner of the highest Order of the King of Sweden, and the Knight of the functioning of the British throne.
Not Tagore, who extended his eighty years through the nineteenth century, to give in to the tyrant British colonial oppressive, or pay any attention to systems poems of flattery, and praise for Rajaoat India and the rulers the English, but leapt enthusiastically published in the world as a whole philosophy of poet Amer faith harmony and unity between human beings , and the brotherhood of peoples, no matter how different languages.
Tagore was one of the few writers of India, who formed a biographical history of emotional and rational for their nation. It was his feelings, thoughts and concerns, and personality are all charged with the doctrine of ideal can be defined knowledge, intuitive, and its conclusion that the negative is not only the appearance in part to the positive presence free of sorrow and separation and death, but still human since the start date to today seeks to value the mouthpiece of the eternal human, whether in science or the act or morality or creativity, or empathy, which is the value of eternal inalienable rights of the courtyard. Yes, death is waiting for us, but we do not Nfny not going down.
Tagore's genius lies in his ability to infiltrate into the essence of the human psyche that it contains. Which was expressed in the clarity of Dr. Taha Hussein, saying: That which fills yourself in the presence of Tagore is the manifestation of his idea of ​​the spiritual in everything from the physical entity. Adib did not accrue Indian intellectuals of the Arab nation with admiration and appreciation as much as they win by Tagore, if they are to root for when he visited Egypt in 1962, led by Dr. Taha Hussein and Mr. Lutfi Pasha, the prince of poets Ahmed Shawki, and Mr. Abbas El Akkad. The systems Tagore poetry romantic young man then launched into his hair mystic until the end to the hair realistic. And after the Court Jetta Najali, which includes poems spirituality of fiction, won Tagore, a fifty-two-year-old Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913, and its value at the time Eight thousand pounds! Was the first writer-east receive this award, was soon to donate a quarter of the value of this award for the maintenance of the edifice of education, educational Akeckabharatne, established and sponsored by the Shanti Nictan.
Tagore was an Indian melting in love with in their homeland. Sets out to see his family and the right way leading to the elevation in stature and their salvation, he says:
Where the mind is liberated from fear and mocked the head high, Where there is knowledge without restrictions, Where the world does not disintegrate into fragments separated parts from each narrow domestic walls, Where words start from the bottom of the truth, Where to extend the struggle that knows no fatigue his arms to embrace the ideal, And where they do not mislead the mind stream Alraiq Vibt way in the desert Almrdhulp habits, Where your mind starts thinking about and working to reach the growing paradise of freedom, Oh, I appeal to you to awaken and become aware of a national coma. It is an eternal message, suitable for all times, as is the Indian art immortal,

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