19‏/03‏/2011

Female genital mutilation


Female genital mutilation

FGM: Reasons and beliefs

Female genital mutilation of the most important problems of old and contemporary at the same war against this habit started long ago but did not take the right on the media level, only recently (1994), which created many of the interpretations that recommend as usual, the idea of ​​targeting the West, which helped it link to this habit of many religious beliefs and social and sexual, this research attempts to refute the numerous allegations of historical, popular and private health circumcision, also sheds light on the effects of psychological, social, economic and sexual habit.

Historically, circumcision:
Unjustly accused of the Pharaohs they were the first of those who have this habit, but it is established that the historical wrongs of this and because the Egyptians used to identify what it was their customs, traditions, and documented, either in writing or inscription .. So we find from the papyri and murals exercise confirms the tradition of "male circumcision", a tradition that Israel transferred Leno, whom the children to express, for the Egyptians. The typically "female circumcision" There is no document confirming their practice in ancient Egypt, made no mention of them when Maniton (280 BC. M.), And when Herodotus (425 BC. M.) When he visited Egypt .. On the contrary, all found evidence to suggest that the Egyptians criminalized the practice. In the British Museum there is a papyrus of the characters Aldimutiqip, any popular, dating to the year 123 BC. M., That the young men from southern Egypt to restore gift request (sermon) from a girl, had planned to marry her, because she discovered Mokhtnp.

In addition, all medical papyri which was subjected to all women for the disease and the symptoms of and treatments not having a single reference to female genital mutilation. Certainly, historically, the Egyptian society has defined female genital mutilation before converting to Christianity and Islam is likely that he entered with the Ethiopian invasion of her family in the era of the twenty-fifth. It is usually an old African began in Central Africa, and it has nothing to do with religion (Islam - Christianity), but also not Pharaonic.

Circumcision statistics:
There are three million girls annually in 28 countries on the African continent are subject to the habit, as is the case for thousands of girls in immigrant communities in Europe and North America, Australia, and worldwide, there are about 155 million women are circumcised, and 7000 Emre daily circumcised, and 90 women circumcised per day within Europe, according to statistics of UNICEF 2003, and believed that the number had increased to 400 women now. In the light of the current birth rates, it means that about two million girls are at risk of some form of female genital mutilation each year.

Came the highest percentage of female circumcision, according to the statistics of UNICEF in Guinea, Mali, Egypt and Sudan, Eritrea and Ethiopia, Burkina Faso and Mauritania, Ivory Coast, Kenya, while the lowest rates of female genital mutilation came in Niger.

Being the age at which circumcision
Are cut mainly for children and adolescents from 4 to 14 years old. However, in some countries are about half of the circumcision of infants less than a year, including 44 per cent in Eritrea and 29 per cent in Mali.

Countries affected by excision:
Maintains the majority of girls and women who have undergone FGM in 28 African countries, although some have lived in Asia. The numbers are increasing in Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States, especially among immigrants from Africa and South-West Asia.

Reasons that led to the continued practice of female genital mutilation:
Social causes:
(1) into account the provision for the involvement of girls in the world of the mirror, and social integration and maintenance of social cohesion.
(2) the belief that accelerates the growth of the child to full womanhood.
(3) increases the chance of the girl in marriage where the couples do not marry a female is Almxtonp.
(4) guarantee of virginity where it is believed in some communities that circumcision protects Afaf mirror until you get married where virginity is a prerequisite for marriage in most African societies the traditional (in terms of medical and anatomical the hymen is proof of virginity. We find that it is sometimes cut this membrane during a circumcision process leading to the loss of virginity).
(5) circumcision prevents adultery, which makes the wife does not need sex, nationality Valmokhttnp less excitation.
(Totally wrong anatomically believe that the mirror is Almokhtnp more a feeling of lust or arousal of sexual Almokhtnp, Both deals Thassan desire or libido quite as much as the sense of desire or lust emanating from the brain and not the reproductive system outside of the mirror, and the odds it is the sense of saturation , women do not know the feeling Almokhttnp saturation (rim) resulting in weakness or lack of responsiveness during sexual intercourse, which would result in a lot of problems, neurological, physiological and psychological stresses as doctors and psychologists).
(6) female genital mutilation, such as male circumcision.
There is a misconception that the process of female genital mutilation are similar to male circumcision where it is removed a piece of leather (excess) of the reproductive system of both of them, in fact, male circumcision is already remove the lashes of Foreign Affairs for reasons of hygiene and physical health, a process that does not eradicate or affect the masculinity or sexual ability of men , and female genital mutilation differs completely from that is the process of amputation of part dynamic of the female reproductive tract has the function of physiological normal and important for the saturation female innate, and because the limb of the body of the girl is a vital member of God's creation to perform the function of important biological is not considered a disease or a direct cause of her a particular disease.

Aesthetic reasons:
Where it is believed that the external genitalia phenomenon of the mirror dirty and disgusting. Valkhtan given a beautiful shape of the reproductive system. Fajtan suppresses the growth of female reproductive part of the external mirror
This common myths where it is believed that the external genitalia of girls continues to grow and capers in the case of non-circumcised even approaching the size of the penis anniversary, so you must amputation to stop the growth of this (ugly), a so-called mitigation description of the door cosmetics. Of course, the scientific opinion decides that the member of the human reproductive system like any other member of his body in a certain amount of growth does not increase no matter how big his rights, Valonf, mouth, ear and other members of the human body has a maximum limit of growth does not increase it. There is any of us for example to cut off part of his nose so as not to grow up or go on for a certain extent, if imposition of argument that this happened, this process will be considered a distortion and introducing a permanent disability and not Tjamila, but medical opinion says that the limb (the labia) has a vital function in facilitating the process of birth because of this property flexible rubber (so-called popular culture Paljldp excess or Ugly) is to allow the landing of the head and the body of the child during birth easily.

Health reasons:
(1) circumcision increases the fertility where it is believed that the clitoris secretes a deadly shedding of sperm. (Or vice versa, Valonty Almokhtnp can become a barren .. Valkhtan reasons not to have children, especially at an early age as a result of pelvic infections. In the case of felling of the genital organs are faltering and the birth process can lead to death of the child and also sometimes the mother).
(2) Some communities believe that the clitoris has the force of killing the first child, especially if you touched the baby's head clitoris during childbirth (does not have any scientific basis. In fact, the death rate before and after the birth to be high among women circumcised because of the length of the birth.).
(3) the female clitoris is possible that the injured man's penis and vagina with teeth hurt men and clitoris another age must be extracted.
(4) female clitoris makes it possible that the husband is impotent.
(5) Almokhttnp cleaner and more physical health
There is a misperception that the circumcision of girls makes it much cleaner, has been shown that circumcision may lead to serious medical complications, wounds, and cuttings are always susceptible to infection, if in fact the opposite is true ie that the likelihood of infection is much higher in the case of circumcision with him in case of non- circumcision.

Religious reasons:
Mistaken belief that circumcision is a religious requirement. Where it is believed that circumcision of the ways of Islam
* There is no reference in the Koran about female genital mutilation.
* There is no consensus of Islamic scholars on the legality of circumcision.
* Ahaadeeth circumcision bear many of the views.
* Opinions of many scientists against female genital mutilation (such as Sheikh Rashid Rida, Sheikh Makhlouf, Sheikh Shaltout, Sheikh Sayed earlier, Dr Tantawi).
* If the way of Islam, why do the brothers of Christians.
The practice of female genital mutilation did not spread in Islamic countries or countries with majority Muslim other, whether the Arab ones, or otherwise, are Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, Mauritania, Djibouti, the only countries in the Arab world, which is the practice of female genital mutilation, it is this practice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Libya, Jordan, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Palestine, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Muscat. In addition to non-Arab countries such as Malaysia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Iran.

Circumcision makes girls more chastity:
People think wrongly that the practice of female genital mutilation maintain abstinence, but the fact that the chastity and honor are governed by reason and not the body, the engine is the first to raise the sexual behavior is the human brain, not genital human being, The brain is the source of sexual desire and drive of desire only, the penis, either anniversary or female What is a tool implemented, so the female genital mutilation did not abolish the sexual desire or limits also tell us about physiology, and there is no evidence to suggest that girls are circumcised more honorable than non-circumcised, Honour and Walid culture and upbringing, is recognized as socially the way that act by any person who is only a result of upbringing and environment.

A study for UNICEF, the most important obstacle to the campaign against female genital mutilation, is to convince the women themselves there is no connection between religion and circumcision, and raise health awareness and religious evils of circumcision.

Psychological causes:
It was noted that women are most committed to circumcise their daughters, and considers Ms. Hicks (a psychiatrist) that women Essandn female genital mutilation because they get out of it on the appreciation and respect social and means of living, it is without him no marriage and no respect for, and suggest-Semitism Solomon livelihood that this represents the desire of the mirror to take revenge on the husband, be thrown libido through circumcision is a weapon in their hands to the face of this husband and humiliate him and refers to the third view it as revenge for themselves and to take revenge, every woman must have suffered from retaliation.
Other beliefs:
(1) female circumcision is necessary in the country, where it is warm in our popular culture that the air temperature increase of the Egyptian woman's libido, a belief betrays a gross ignorance of the knowledge of physiology and medicine, a far cry from the scientific method in the analysis and for the following reasons:
First: The brain is the engine of desire and not genital human being, so the air temperature has no effect on increasing sexual arousal.
Secondly: I do not believe this can also explain why the air temperature does not affect high on lust man?
Thirdly: I do not believe this can also explain why this phenomenon does not exist except in some African countries only, while the other countries of the world, including both warm temperate or not witnessing an increase in sexual desire in women of the situation affected the atmosphere.

(2) friction of clothing than women's sexual desire:
A belief that no less surprising purposely ignoring the mind the belief, although the former was associated with the same logic is illogical, Once again, the mind is issued by the sensory signals and not friction or adhesion Public genital outer clothing for women. If this is the popular perception is far from the logic inherent raising the man must be exponentially as a result of friction Public genital anniversary of his clothes.

Nationality damage of circumcision:
(1) circumcision reduces female fertility: A study conducted by Swedish researchers that female circumcision reduces fertility in women who are victims of this habit. The researchers who conducted the research on nearly 300 women in the Sudan, one of the countries where this phenomenon abound, women who have been to cut some of their vaginas at least overnight with the fertility rate of five to six times the non-circumcised peers.
(2) cut the hymen: There is no doubt that exposure to the process of female circumcision may lead to cut the hymen.
(3) weak to respond sexually: There is no doubt that the insensitivity of sexual manner different from the weak to respond to sexual or non-occurrence of oestrus is the inevitable result of the eradication of important parts of her role of a major role during the sexual encounter, such as the clitoris and the labia minora As a result, women suffer from weakness and Brod sexy.
(4) sexual pain: containing parts made on a group of glands that secrete certain substances that facilitate the penetration of the penis into the vagina and to cut off these parts are also stop the work of these glands (and this explains the difficulty of intercourse with a woman who was circumcised). And causes narrowing of the vaginal opening to the more difficult when having intercourse, as well as a lot of problems at birth.
(5) frigidity and contraction of vaginal: suppress girl this painful experience (the experience of circumcision) in the subconscious mind and Tdvinha in the unconscious and become this experience painful source sufficient to misery and pain of marriage and dealing with its genitals in marital relations, refuses to Airadia dealing with genital and become sterility, sexual or vaginal contraction. The clitoris, a member of atrophic is one of the largest two of the main centers of excitement and a sense of when the sexual female (second place is the vagina). It is fitted with a dense network of blood vessels and nerves are sensitive and that transmits messages sensory such as patting, pressure and friction across the spinal cord to the centers of sensation and sexual pleasure the brain, so it plays an essential role in early warning of these centers during intercourse and communication doubles intimate, making the parties to the communication process of husband and wife obtained the pleasure of mutual intercourse and arrive At the same time to the peak of saturation.
(6) loss of sexual satisfaction: in a medical study published in the British Medical Journal British medical journal about the relationship between sexual satisfaction and general health of the men's study proved that the lack of sexual gratification leads to some of the following:
1 - increase the rate of mortality.
2 - Lack of sense of smell: the secretion of the hormone prolactin in the event of sexual gratification leads to maintain and strengthen the sense of smell.
3 - Increasing rates of heart disease and increased risk of heart attack.
4 - twice the level of fitness Aldnip.
5 - higher rates of depression and anxiety.
6 - generally a greater sense of pain as the mother headaches and arthritis.
7 - increase the likelihood of weakness and bladder function.
8 - prostate function impairment and increased risk of prostate cancer.
9 - lack of concentration and mental performance.
10 - increase the likelihood of ED.
11 - a weakened immune system.

The psychological effects of circumcision:
(1) child feeling betrayed and deceived her and her parents, and lose confidence in their love to them. This is because the process of circumcision surrounded usually manifestations of joy and gladness in the atmosphere of the family and courted all of the girl child target circumcised and wore new clothes bright and giving them the tastiest types of candy, food, gifts, and in the midst of Farahtha surprised by their loved ones paralyzing the movement of a woman Ashmaoip features or rude man suffered features (an animal or decorated) amputation of part of the meat district Vicb in her body Seir excruciating pain which is fueling conflict psychologically inside is torn in accommodate her mind the event, Valmekdmat not consistent with Akhawatim, there can be manifestations of pampering and joy that surrounded the introduction to this great distress, you feel the child betraying her parents and deceived her, and lose confidence in their love her they do not understand how the people closest to her heart are themselves causing Ielamha and obliged.

(2) a sense of horror and fear when they fall under the grip of an existing lead them to be circumcised, as well as feeling ashamed of what happened to them, followed by a sense of humiliation, convergence, may cause a desire to take revenge on those who think they Khanoha by bedwetting, or behavior disorders.

(3) incidence of many mental illnesses, as well as disease self autosomal (Psycho-Somatic), we find that they suffer from frustration, depression, stress, anxiety and Intabha headaches, insomnia, sleep disorders, digestive and urinary systems, which makes them resort to painkillers, tranquilizers and sedatives without success, causing entry into addiction hell .

The social effects of circumcision:
Some may resort to polygamy, divorce, adultery or homosexual practices such as sodomy with his wife due to lack of marital adjustment.

Economic damage of circumcision:
Are cases of female genital mutilation a burden on family income and health services to the State when it resorts girl or woman to public hospitals or other health institutions for treatment of complications of circumcision immediate or future.

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