Dialogue and unprotected from violence
There is a reciprocal relationship between dialogue and violence, in the sense that whenever the dialogue was an active, positive and healthy, the lower tendencies of violence, and the more dialogue channels are blocked or narrowed or contracted, the more violent tendencies. In order to illustrate this relationship Fsnstard briefly some definitions, mechanisms and determinants of violence and preventive means it then follow that by reviewing some of the concepts and patterns of dialogue in the cases is the negative and positive, in order to achieve the greatest possible degree of healthy dialogue active enrich human existence and spared the negative effects of tendencies of violence.
Language: - violence (violence) annexation against kindness. Say it: violence upon annexation (violent), and (violence) is also and (taunting) calibration and blame (Razi 666), is clear from the linguistic definition that violence is not limited to physical abuse but is a comprehensive physical and verbal abuse on both, and the terminology used: - Violence is any behavior directed to harm a person or other people do not wish to do so and try to avoid it (Kaplan and sadock, 1994).
Problems of definition: - Despite the multiplicity of definitions of violence in different cultures, but there remains many questions about the description of a particular behavior as violent, because that is often associated with the context in which it is this behavior, violence is exercised in order to plunder other rights or oppression to accept the status particular is quite different from the violence be motivated to pay the false or the realization of the right or self-defense, display or nation or creed ... etc, there are some definitions that fall short of violence to physical abuse without the verbal, and most definitions do not capture the passive violence Kasamt and stubbornness and Almkaidp .
Mechanisms of violence:
Mechanisms of violence are many and intertwined intertwined with each other to lead to the release of violent tendencies .. Despite the multiplicity and complexity of reasons, but many psychologists believe that the frustration is the single most important factor leading to violence and interpret the relationship between violence and frustration as follows:
Frustration ---------- physiological and psychological changes --------------- increased response to stimuli, violence ---------- violent behavior (Kaplan and sadock1989) , and finds another team that violence happens if disturbed balance between motivation and the like between the internal control of the person on that motivation (Kaplan and sadock, 1994)
Theories of violence: (Theories of aggression)
(1) violence instinctive behavior:
"It was Freud's thought - in his writings early - that human behavior arises directly or indirectly, which he called the life instinct (Eros), and the highest energy of this instinct," libido "(Libido), and said it geared towards strengthening the life and development. And that violence from this perspective arise from frustration or dam outlets, such energy. But after the tragic events that grapes etc in the First World War, wrote about the existence of an instinct other huge is death instinct (Thanatos), and launched this instinct and heading towards the destruction and termination of life. and went Freud that human behavior is determined by the interaction between these two Ahlgrezatin.
"As Lorenz (Lorenz, 1966) argues that violence arises, which he called" fighting instinct "(Fight instinct) and involving the rights with the rest of the objects, and that violence in humans according to this concept is something that can not be avoided it is imperative behavior.
(2) violent behavior that earned:
According to this view, especially Albert Bandura (Bandura, 1973) that violence is an acquired behavior in the social milieu through: -
A - gain responses to violence during the previous life experiences (such as assault him and others trying to defend himself).
B - strengthening a person gets when violence occurs (if it becomes Mhaba between people or become a bully or warm becomes a hero in their eyes).
C - The existence of social conditions and special environmental evoke violence directly.
(3) violence as a result of nerve damage in the brain anatomical:
The proponents of this view say that there is a strong correlation between violent behavior and head injuries, and they see that a large proportion of those who had been violent conduct in the period of their lives to abuse resulting in injuries of varying brain cells.
Determinants of violence: (Aggression Determinants)
Social determinants: -
(1) frustration: and is the single most important factor in the induction of violence in humans, does not mean that every frustration leads to violence, or that all violence is the result of frustration (Dollard et al, 1939) and to cause frustration to the violence must be available key factors:
First: that the frustration must be severe, and the second: that the person receives this frustration at the injustice and the reality that he does not deserve it, or it is illegal.
(2) direct stimulation of the others: - This may be simple at first arousal Klfez offensive or insulting, but can be multiplied to reach mutual Alasttharat person to the utmost violence.
(3) exposure to models of violence: this happens when a person watches forms of violence in television or film, it makes it more prone to violence through three mechanisms are (Kaplan & Sadock, 1985):
A - Learning noted: (Observational Learning):
Where a person learn from scenes of violence that sees new ways to harm others did not know before.
B - chaos (Disinhibition): the sense that the controls and barriers which are a barrier between human violence and weaken gradually as exposure to scenes of violence exercised by the others in front of him on the screen.
C - reduce the sensitivity (Desensitization): where a person less sensitive to the painful effects of the violence and suffering endured by victims of this violence whenever it was repeated scenes of violence, so it becomes more aggressive violence without feeling pain or remorse.
"Environmental determinants (Enviromental Determinants) such as air pollution, noise, congestion, etc. ...
"Situational determinants (Situational Determinants): 1 - Counselling physiological high: an example of the intense competition in the competitions, or athletic exercises, violent, or exposure to films containing scenes exciting.
2 - sexual arousal: it was found that exposure to high excitation Nationality (if a person sees a film full of sexual scenes) the person prepares responses to violence.
3 - Pain: When Humans are physical pain be more inclined to violence towards any person in front of him.
"Determinants of membership: (Organic Determinants) 1 - hormones and drugs: Some studies attribute the violence to a higher proportion Alondorjin hormone (testosterone) in the blood, although these studies is uncertain so far.
And result in the use of drugs such as alcohol, barbiturates and opiates to increase the impulse towards violence.
2 - neurotransmitters: in general associated with increased dopamine and serotonin deficiency violence, while the increase of serotonin and the GABA lead to the reduction of violent behavior.
3 - Genetic chromosomes: studies have confirmed the twins increase the proportion of violent behavior in one-egg twins if one twin was characterized by violence. The studies and other genetic increase in violence in persons with low intelligence, and those who have a family history of psychiatric disorders, there is the possibility could not be confirmed unequivocally that persons with XYY chromosomes structure tend to be more inclined to violence.
* Domestic Violence:
1 - imagine the man for woman and vice versa
2 - general frustration and disappointment in marital relations in particular
3 - Offset violence:
A - from outside to inside: where there is political despotism and violence, international, social, there is tyranny and violence within the family and particularly of men towards women
B - from the inside to the inside: offset vector basis of violence toward a spouse to the children
* The relationship between political despotism and domestic violence: Books Qasim Amin in his book "The New Woman" in 1900 says: "There is a correlation between the political situation and family situation in each country. Everywhere landed the man of the status of women and treated her treatment of slaves landed himself and lose the consciousness of freedom. and vice versa in a country where women Bharithn personal men have the freedom of political situations are linked inextricably through. and that means to ask: Which of the two influenced the other? say: they Mtvaaltan, and that both influential in the interview, in other words: The form of government affects the Arts and Letters home household affect the social body, in the East of the country find that women in slavery men, and men in slavery ruling is unjust in his oppressed if it comes out of it "
Prevention and treatment: - 1) to draw attention to vulnerable groups (the most susceptible to provoke violence) to identify the triggers of violence to have and to try to reduce these triggers.
2) to examine situations of violence, extensive scientific study to explore aspects of organic, psychological and social needs to be addressed.
3) positive health dialogue to give the opportunity for all groups to express themselves in an orderly and safe reduces the chances of resorting to violence.
4) social skills training, where he found that people with tendencies toward violence, they have many problems in communication and social interaction, putting them in often sharp and dangerous confrontations with those who do business with them, and this provokes the violence they have. Therefore, a program of training in social skills and communication skill skill bear frustration, among others. Can lead to a reduction of aggressive tendencies in these persons.
5) punishment: sometimes result in appropriate punishment (especially if it was close to the violent act in time) to reduce the severity and frequency of violent behavior from the link between police violence and impunity. But if there was a period of time between the act of violent and punishment, or punishment was disproportionate to the backlash, the punishment may lead to the opposite result increases the potential for increased violence, and that observed in cases subjected to physical abuse and psychological violent as they become more inclined towards violence, and even greater seriousness of their violence.
6) responses to adversity: This method is based on the face of violent behavior, the behavior of a completely different result to stop the violence and minimize the come back. As an example, if there is a person with violent tendencies that a person other hand, treated him with love and compassion and pity, that reduces the Andfaath violent, and this confirms the verse "Repel evil is better if the enmity between you and if I close" Another example: to be met with violent tendencies humor of the party the other, has been found actually experience that humor and wit in situations of acute reduce the potential for violence. It also found that awaken a sense of guilt or indulging in the activity of mental knowledge, or exposure to certain stimuli favorite person, all this could lead to a reduction tendencies of violence.
7) drug therapy: This treatment becomes particularly important in cases of sick Kaladtrapat organic or psychological, even in these cases is found to be of some medications such as lithium and epilepsy drugs, sedatives grave impact on the tendencies of violence.
The role of preventive and therapeutic dialogue: it became clear from the foregoing that the dialogue can play a vital role and important role in reducing the triggers of violence and reducing the possibilities for asylum of persons to violence as a means to express themselves or as a way to solve their problems or get rid of their frustrations and even though we all levels and in all events (almost) talking about the importance of dialogue is not only a precaution against violence and treat him, but to improve the quality of our individual, social, humanitarian, despite all this, we have a deep trouble and many relating to these terms, either because of blockage of the channels of dialogue (all or some of them), or because of the prevalence of incorrect styles of dialogue us. Both of these reasons lead to the right to disable the communication process with the consequent problems in the relationship violence is one of their secretions. Therefore, in this study, we will try to briefly review some concepts of dialogue and review some of the patterns prevalent in our lives.
Linguistic definition of the dialogue: the dialogue (a conversation) in the sense transponders, and (dialogue) response (al-Razi 666).
Terminological definition of dialogue: it is the interaction of the verbal or non-verbal between two or more human beings to human communication and exchange of ideas, experience and integrity.
A daily life activity practiced in the home and the street, work, school, university and the media ... etc.. On the basis of dialogue based behavior and form relationships.
There are some concepts related to positive or negative dialogue among them, for example: the difference and disagreement, and controversy, and division, the following are brief definitions of these concepts: -
A - difference and disagreement: and that person shall be conducted every way different from the last in the case or in the words and this can be said that the controversy and disagreement is intended to absolute contrary to say, opinion, or case or body or position. And the difference is more general than "antibody" since all opposites are different and not all different opposites (al-Alwani, 1991)
B - debate: If a conflict has intensified intensification, or both to what it is to say, opinion, attitudes, and tried to defend him, and convince others to do, or get them by the attempt was called controversy. Unquestionable advantage in the language, "Bargaining for the dispute and prevail," taken from "Jdlt cord" If Vtlth tightened twist as, each and every one of Almottagadelan tries to spin the owner and Ijdelh strongly and the tightening of the opinion that he sees (See also the key to happiness 2 / 599 edition Library of modern Egypt , and definitions of Jarjani 66-Halabi edition).
C - unhappy: if heated rivalry Almottagadelan, the impact of each prevail rather than to ensure the emergence of the right and clearly the right thing, and could not be a mutual understanding or agreement, called the situation with a (division) and its origin: that every one in the construction of the earth, as if the ground and one does not accommodate the two together (See also the key to happiness 2 / 599 Modern Library edition in Egypt, and definitions of Jarjani 66-Halabi edition)
Objectives of the dialogue: The dialogue goals, achieved whenever the dialogue was healthy, including:
1 - try to understand others.
2 - to convince others of his point of view.
3 - to reach a formula of understanding, coexistence and integration.
4 - upgrading of human existence through the exchange and integration and the accumulation of experiences.
Reference Dialogue: whenever there is a strong and shared reference whenever the dialogue was more positive, integrated, and on the contrary, the weaker this reference or separated or disrupted as opposed paths of dialogue or narrowed and became closer to the dialogue noise. Therefore, in periods of social transformation - especially a sudden or rapid - we find that the dialogue becomes more vocal and complex and fragmented due to the different references of knowledge of the different categories is very different it does not have the minimum of the agreement on anything, and lost them all constants and everything is subject to appeal, skepticism and stultification.
Levels of dialogue:
1 - internal dialogue (with oneself): In this case the fact that it is a healthy dialogue between the different levels of self in harmony and reconciliation without canceling or stigma or denial or distortion. If that fails, the internal dialogue psychological disorders may be driven by waves of violence accumulated abroad or to the inside Vtkon destructive to others or for the same same.
2 - horizontal dialogue (with people): It is divided into two parts:
A - a dialogue between members of the community who share the same beliefs, values and concepts. This dialogue is based on the principle of "half-brother when you think", and the principle of "cooperation in the agreement and excuses to be different."
B - a dialogue between diverse communities in the beliefs, values and concepts, and this dialogue takes place according to the principle of co-factors in order to develop good, and participate (although the difference) in the age of the universe.
3 - Dialogue vertical (with God): - The nature of this dialogue, where both the former head man about his Lord and pray for forgiveness and ask for help and have Him answer prayer and forgiveness and assistance. This level if it is active and positive, it happens a state of balance and harmony in both the former (ie, in a dialogue with the same rights and dialogue with others).
Acceptance of differences such as one universal basis for the success of the dialogue: - The difference in views and appreciation of things and judging them, is an instinctive natural and is linked to individual differences to a large extent, it is impossible to build a life, and a network of social relations between people of all abilities and equal module matched, with no room - then - of the interaction and the acquisition and tender! That it is the nature of the intellectual and practical requirement of skills and capabilities of different and varied, as if the wisdom of Allaah dictates that among the people Pferogahm individual - whether it be congenital or acquired - and the business of life rules, convergence, and all the facilitator for creating it, and so people are different (al-Alwani, 1991 ).
With who will be the dialogue: dialogue is the duty all the time, whenever he met with two or more people. We make mistakes a lot when we think that dialogue is the only among the intelligentsia or elite, rather, that dialogue should be inclusive of all levels of society and remains an active and ongoing, and pay particular attention to Mjoat the most susceptible to the emergence of violence (or the so-called groups fragile) and including:
1 - Age Groups of 15-25 years, causing organic and psychological changes associated with the teenage girl and a state of imbalance may lead to violence when exposed to Mthirath. It was found that when disturbed teenager motivated violence it has brought to this violence towards any person or persons without discrimination, and this is different from the violence of older persons who are delivering them to people often about their relationship - usually a family member
2 - (Kaplan and sadock, 1994).
3 - crowded places and slums (slums as an example).
4 - within the minority community, which may feel it is under pressure or blockade of the majority. And the word minorities here are not limited to religious or ethnic minorities, but better to include any group of thought or belief that differs from the majority of people.
5 - Persons who have been involved in acts of violence (in the prisons and corrections). And incorrect claims of other and promoted it does not come out of dialogue with the law, but on the contrary that this category is in dire need of dialogue before, during and after the implementation of legal punishment on them. The dialogue here does not eliminate the liability of the person for his actions, but rather tries to address what happened and the prevention of possible violence.
6 - addicted to alcohol and drugs: It is proven that 50% of those who have incidents of murder or assault had consumed alcohol prior to such acts shortly (Kaplan and Sadock, 1994) and this category has a lot of problems in relations with others, and I have had this writer a rich experience in therapeutic dealing with a large number of addicts for several years and felt that the positive dialogue in community health management has had a significant impact in improving the behavior of these people, despite their long history in the abuse of alcohol and drugs and commit crimes of various kinds.
7 - people who suffer from mental disorders especially those who suffer from feeling angry, or have aggressive tendencies, or have a disruption in the control or organic brain damage, or have already set fire to property or bed-wetting, or cruelty to animals.
8 - persons who repeated their threat to use violence.
9 - for those who have aggressive tendencies toward authority figures in society.
10 - people who have lost one or both parents at an early age.
11 - Hotheads in driving.
12 - groups that feel victimized in the community.
13 - Individuals who experienced a sense of helplessness and despair.
14 - unemployed.
15 - individuals who have been subjected to psychological abuse or physical or both in prisons or concentration camps.
The colors of the negative dialogue (Mahdi 1992): -
1) dialogue nihilistic crippling: And it does not see one of the parties to the dialogue or both of the only negatives, mistakes and obstacles and thus ends the dialogue that "no interest" and leave this kind of dialogue a great deal of frustration with one or both parties, where blocking the road in front of every attempt to advance.
2) dialogue maneuver (hit-and-run): the parties are busy (or one of them) superiority in verbal discussion, regardless of the real and final fruit of that discussion, a kind of self-assertion superficially.
3) double dialogue: and here gives the apparent meaning of words is what gives it inwardly so as to contain the large number of ambiguous words and puns .. It is intended to confuse the other side .. And its connotations as a kind of malignant aggression.
4) dialogue authoritarian (Hear and Respond): We find this kind of dialogue to prevail on many levels, there is a domineering father and mother domineering and authoritarian teacher, and administrator authoritarian ... etc.. A severe type of aggression where one cancels the other entity of the Parties and is considered too low to enter into, but it just listening to orders and response metadata without discussion or displeased. This kind of dialogue as well as the abolition of that entity (Freedom) Party for the account of another party, it eliminates the frustrating and creative abilities to the party oppressed They affect negatively on the parties and the entire community.