01‏/04‏/2011

The ancient Egyptian civilization


                                          


The oldest civilizations and most important of all is the civilization of the ancient Egyptians considered the most important civilization in history because of their importance 

Where he discovered the ancient Egyptian many important discoveries of mankind is still far wow site between scientists and those interested in history 
 Civilization of the ancient Egyptians or the ancient Egyptian civilization is the civilization that has in Egypt under the pharaohs of different families since the dawn of history until the Roman conquest of Egypt over 3000 years 



Since 250 thousand years BC. M. In prehistoric times, Egypt was home to primitive man, who was hunting the animals, where the region was in the far south of the Nuba rich grass 
Since 35 thousand years BC. M. Came to this area of ​​desertification, which stops rainfall, which created the agricultural communities in central Egypt and the Delta in the north. The first Egyptian civilization in the region of Badari in Upper Egypt based on farming, fishing and breeding birds, livestock and industry Alfajarwaltaadin. 
In about the year 4000 BC. M. Irrigation systems have become a small tribal kingdoms of Egypt and Upper Egypt was symbolized by the white crown of Lower Egypt, symbolized by the crown of the Red King Menes united the two countries from the South since 3200 BC. M and making the capital of Memphis (Memphis). This standardization made Egypt a safe country and its capital, Memphis, and this is evident through the many records that he maintained the dry weather to be saved message and the times through the successive verses on papyrus. 
This is the historical division of Egypt, known system attributed to Dynastic Egyptian priest named Manetho has written in the Ptolemaic era 


                             
Divide the history of Egypt for thirty families, even Alexander the Great invaded Egypt and the date when the gaps overlooked by many periods of the rulers of Egypt. See: Maniton. 
Under the governor of Egypt makes it Msraam divinity since the unification of 3200 BC. M. Even the Roman occupation of Egypt. 
2772 BC. M. The Egyptians knew that calendar year, 365 days. 
2700 BC. M. King Djoser built his pyramid at Saqqara pyramid known as the runway. 
2560 BC. M. King Khufu built the Great Pyramid, which has been the highest building in the world until the 13 th century. 
2260 BC. M events of the story took place Eloquent Peasant 
2050 BC. Became a good Luxor during the Middle Kingdom capital of Egypt. 
2000 BC. M. Egypt Rodt cats to snakes and progress in astronomy and to predict the date the flood. 
1786 BC. M. Hyksos who came to Egypt as traders and proceeding in the turbulent century before, occupying the north of Egypt and brought the horse and the wheel, and a strong influence due to internal problems in Egypt. 
1600 BC. M. Revolution against the Hyksos in Upper Egypt it spread all over Egypt. 
1560 BC. M. Ahmose expelled the Hyksos and the rest of the Asian tribes, founding the modern state and the country became a colonial state and took over most of the ancient world. 
1500 BC. M. Use sweep 
1425 BC. M. Became king Thutmose III ruled Egypt and founded the Egyptian Empire, or what is described as the modern state 
1375 BC. M. Call monotheism of Akhenaten and moved the capital from Thebes to Tel el-Amarna and the prevention of sun worship, which led to the disintegration of large parts of the Egyptian Empire 
1271 BC. M. King Ramses II fought Alhethein on the eastern border of the country's name in a long battle of Kadesh where one did not win 
1285 BC. M. King of the Hittites Khatossell II held a peace treaty with Ramses II and a peace agreement is the first blog in history and came to power parity 
1236 BC. M. King Merneptah, king of Egypt (1236 1223), block the attack of the Sea Peoples and Libyans and blogs at Mslath that it had attacked the people (Israel) and spent it in (1231) 
1167 BC. M the death of Ramses III (1198 1167) the last king of Egypt bones and a weak central state, priests, and governors of the provinces control over Egypt and the beginning of the Late Period 
750 BC. M. Kashta King King of the South up to rule and declares himself king of the country and the son of the god Amun. 
671 BC. M. Wars with the Assyrians 
661 BC. M. Expulsion of the Assyrians, the Egyptians at the hands of the first Absmatik 
601 BC. M King Necho II block the Babylonian invasion, the war Egyptian Babylonian 
525 BC. M. Alakmignon invade Egypt and ruled it for the year 405 BC. 
405 BC. M. The expulsion of the Egyptians to the Persians at the hands of Imereti 
343 BC. M. Persians occupied Egypt again until 332 BC. 
332 BC. M. Alexander the Great invaded Egypt and established Alexandria 
323 BC. M. The beginning of the reign of Ptolemy 
30 BC. M. Cleopatra VII committed suicide - the end of the reign of Ptolemy and the beginning of Roman rule 
330 AD Byzantine Roman rule of Egypt. 
641 AD to enter Islam in Egypt 33 years after his appearance in Mecca. 


   

Were not the civilization of ancient Egyptian civilization in the age slip time. Because their civilization was a single cultural characteristics and achievements of the large and originality. This is what gave it the credibility of originality among all civilizations. Or cultures, making it the undisputed minimum. This civilization Mkutha and more impressed and renowned among the ancient civilizations. The civilization of the ancient Egyptians The Ancient Egyptians Civilization along the Nile River in northeastern Africa since the year 5000 BC. M. To the year 30 BC. M. .. The longest continuity of the civilization ancient world, the ancient Egyptian civilization mean in terms of geography that civilization, which originated the valley and the Nile Delta, where he lived the ancient Egyptians. It is the cultural aspect refers to the language and civilization, customs and rituals of their organization and management and administrative affairs of life and their perception of the nature around them and their dealings with their neighbors they are the first people Astons cats. 


The River Nile, which revolves around ancient Egyptian civilization Npa over the hills of Ethiopia in East Africa and the headwaters of the Nile in southern Sudan, traveling from north Sudan to Egypt to the flood comes every year to feed the soil with silt. This phenomenon is natural flood Egypt's economy has made a renewed sleep dependent mainly on agriculture. It helped the emergence of civilization is also the sky is free of clouds and sunshine almost throughout the year supervising ancient Egyptians to extend Ialdfou and light. Egypt is also protected from neighbors, West Sahara and the sea from the north and east, and the presence of waterfalls (rapids) in the south in Nubia on the Nile to the ground, making it almost deserted. In this land back two of the seven wonders of the world. They are the pyramids in Giza and the Lighthouse of Alexandria. The plant was the oldest archaeological site in Nubia. It was 6000 years since the fall of the pastoral summer rainfall attends the cattle until 4899 years ago when the rain subsided. Discovered by the circles of stone has Scanbp communities in the region, including the village was fed by 18 well water under the surface of tiles Mijuleci large building is a statue of a cow sculpture of a big rock. The village consists of 18 houses. And the cemetery where many of the cattle were found in their rooms from the mud. This indicates that the population they worship the cow. Stoves were found and used. And the bones of deer and wild rabbits and shards of pottery and decorated ostrich egg shells. But there is no landfill waste or human plant. This indicates that the nomads were free to come and plant every summer, where water and pasture. , Marriage, trade and the establishment of religious ceremonies. 
In the field of astronomy, we find that the ancient Egyptians had set up the oldest observatory in the world and before the era of building the pyramids since the period of time by the sun and stars, where they set up gravestones Mijalithat Megaliths. It is a circle of stone have been established since 7000 in the desert in southern Egypt. Before the establishment of sites Almijalithat England, Britain and Europe a thousand years as a famous Stonehenge 

The plant site was discovered several years ago and consists of a small stone circle. With the bones of cattle and five diagonal lines of stones and tiles Ahadjrbp revealed by the listing over a mile from the site and some at altitudes of 9 feet. Each slab buried in soil over a flat rock. This is the site of the original points of the four sets of solar moderation. Active and a small stone circle by the bones of cattle and five lines of Mijulithat italics. This site has been built on the shore of Lake gather rain water and in summer time. Where herds of cattle were driven to the plant in the Neolithic period since 10 thousand years old. The nomadic herdsmen come to in the rainy season, even since 4800 years, where the monsoon subsided towards the south Ghellab the region will become barren. This was a small circle 12 feet in diameter with four sets of tiles, where the list can be seen ahead. The two Tottagha to the north and south and the other two groups on the horizon Tottagha Equinox solar summer. And their descendants after 2000 years have been displaced by the Nile Valley and established the ancient Egyptian civilization, especially after Oagafrat this pastoral region and climate change. And settled in the year 4000 BC. M. Upper Egypt, especially in the Nizhne ancient Naqada and Abydos (see: Badari). This spatial stability and creativity while making the ancient Egyptian culture and their civilization on their land. Creating science and literature, traditions, customs, literature, stories, myths, and left after them, recording the wall and papyrus manuscript of the root of this innovative civilization. Vcedoa buildings huge pyramids, temples and tombs that have defied time. In addition to manuscripts, drawings, Anakouchet and color images, which remained until today 



The papyrus plant were being treated to make it the kind Atmarh and wrote the history, science, customs and traditions to be a message to their grandchildren and the world. They write it in the hieroglyphic writing of a graphic symbol which reflects the image are known. And concepts invented in the account and studied engineering, medicine, dentistry and worked with the calendar according to their observations of the sun and stars. Although the ancient Egyptians used to worship many gods, but unification of God's call came at the hands of King Akhenaten ideological feature. They are also the first to Souroaptda doctrine of life in the Hereafter. These concepts were not found with other peoples. And built and decorated the graves and decorated Ptothitha have to live the life eternal. Egypt was the superpower and the world was the old political influence often extends its influence to neighboring countries in east Asia and west Africa. Heart and to the south and Puntland and Yemen, the ancient Egyptians call their land Kemet Kimmitt any land that the black gives the Nile silt was also called rational Deshret any ground reference to the color red sands of the Sahara, which is burning in the sun. The abundance of water could flood them Ivimon network for irrigation, agriculture and manufactured boat traffic, transport and fishing river. And gave them the land, jewels, precious metals such as gold, silver and copper. They exchange goods with neighboring countries. The history of Egypt we find start since 8000 BC. M. In the South-eastern Egypt, Sudan border where the North East. The shepherds came to her people and was the region where he was attracted by the sensitivity of the plains for grazing and climate was hospitable and the lakes of water from monsoon rains. The monuments show that they were settlers there caring for livestock. They left after them, huge buildings in the year 6000 BC. M. 

Agriculture began in the town of Badari in six 5000 BC. M. The Fayoum settlers before planting Badari thousand years. The city of Mermaid Delta on its western border since 4500 BC. M. In the city of Bhutto emerged pottery decorated pottery different from the one in Upper Egypt. There was a difference between the ancient Egyptians between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt in the faith and way of burying the dead and architecture. The King Menes in 3100 BC. M. And united the two countries (of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt). He put on his head symbolizes eutrofication white face and red tribal face the sea. And make the King of Memphis Memphis Mena united capital and was located west of the Nile at Giza, Abydos royal tomb, which moved to Saqqara during the era of the Old Kingdom. See: the pyramids. The population of Egypt before the Dynastic Period (5000 BC. M. - 3000 BC. M.) Currently only hundreds of thousands, during the Old Kingdom (2575 BC. M. --2,134 BC. M.) Amounted to 2 million people during the Middle Kingdom (2040 BC. M -. 1640 BC. m.) increased in number and during the New Kingdom (1550 BC. m. - 1070 BC. m.) Aladdinm was 3-4 million. In the Hellenistic era (332 BC. M .- 30 BC. M.) Reached number 7 million. Egypt and then entered the Roman era. The Egyptians are adjacent river. Agricultural community because they were executing a good and important when each capital city. And education and was an independent writing in ancient Egypt and the limited writing and reading between the small proportion of the ruling elite or clerks in the administrative system. The children of the royal family and the ruling elite learn to minors. The rest of the people who were educated in schools or temples Mounzul. The education of girls was confined to writing and reading at home. The teachers were strict and use the battery. The callus school learning to read and write and write letters and other texts. The manuscripts were kept in the house of life, a house conservation in each temple, and like a library. He was educated in Egypt studying ancient mathematics, geometry, fractions and combining, and medicine. The books found in internal medicine, surgery and treatment, pharmaceutical and veterinary dentistry. And copy all books, including literature and religious texts. 


The Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799 during the French campaign was carved in 196 BC. M. Accordingly, three languages ​​and hieroglyphic Aldemutkip (Coptic language and is intended by the ancient Egyptians to modern), and Greek. At the time of the discovery of the mystery of language Aevsr hundreds of years ago. Because the first two languages ​​were at the time of the dead languages. Even the world France's Jean-Francois Champollion interpreted such language after matching them with the Greek and hieroglyphic texts of the other. This indicates that these languages ​​were prevalent during the reign of the Ptolemaic Greeks to Egypt for more than 150 years. The hieroglyphic language of the circulation of religious temples and Egyptian demotic language was the language of writing and popular Greek language Greek rulers. And the content of writing in praise of Pharaoh Msroinjazath good for the priests and people of Egypt. Has been written by priests to public and private reading of senior Egyptian and the ruling class. Champollion was able to decode the hieroglyphics in 1822 to open the horizons to identify the civilization of the ancient Egyptians Olgazha sciences and the translation after the revival of their language after Muatha over the centuries. The hieroglyphic and Obhaditha taught anyone who wants to study Egyptology. Then developed hieroglyphic Heratkip Dimutkip and then to the Coptic 

The ancient Egyptian calendar time since the early stage and was based on Mlahzanhm of the sun and the stars, the sky, the dates of the Nile flood every year. They were using their calendar to record historical events and festivals and scheduling decisions Norik property. The first attempt to make a calendar in 8000 BC. M. When making the stone circles (see: Avpere. And Stonehenge) in the corner of the most south-west of Egypt. And was used to control the stars and their movements. They divided the 24-hour day (12 day and 12 night) and week 10 days month 3 weeks or 30 days. Year and 12 months. It was divided to three chapters each chapter 4 months ago. The year was equivalent to 360 days. The ancient Egyptians say after 5 days on each of these five days indicates birth of the god of festivity. And this year will be the Pharaonic full 365 days. It is almost a year now, except for solar fourth on the difference in each calendar year, did not know to add on every 4 years. 
The ancient Egyptians Balgdid work innovative and startling creativity to the world both in the embalming (article), music, sculpture, literature, painting, architecture and drama. After days of consolidation Mbena become a religious belief that have the attributes of the pluralism of the gods and of Theology and the environment have an impact on religious thought and worship the ancient Egyptian gods where the human or animal forms, or combination of them. These forms Jsdwiha ancient Egyptian forces of nature and its elements. And the formation of myths and stories about their gods and their world to understand the complex interactions in the universe around them. Religious belief played a big role in their lives and have had their impact on the art and thoughts about life in the Hereafter and the idea of ​​the resurrection and the rulers and their relations. The Art Studio Kalnan bilateral dimensions and drawing on the walls of temples, tombs and coffins of the dead and the coffins of the dead and papyrus. The Egyptian artists Iggsmon photos personal expression Ttin rate of time and space in these pictures does not pass across the Klodomn through hieroglyphic drawings that accompany and be part of the wonderful work of art. The name of the statue is placed on the base or side. 

And we find pyramids reflect the greatness of the ancient Egyptian architecture. This wild huge tombs have four triangular walls converge at the point of the summit which is a hill out of primitive life in the myths of creation or the strong sunlight. We have built a pyramid of about 100 and as a rest house after the death of their rulers. The temple is square at the east west line of sunrise and sunset. The ancient Egyptians believed that the model of the temple built by humans can be a physical environment suitable for the gods. Greeks have benefited from the ancient Egyptian sculpture, architecture, philosophy and theology (see: Amenhotep) .. The ancient Egyptians were masters of art works of stone, metal and glass-making and the normal color. And exploration of the effects prehistoric era in Egypt since 6000 years BC. M. The presence of archaeological sites on the border with Egypt, South Sudan, where they were found at the burial sites and the establishment of Aloebad, ceremonies and graves for the livestock, which indicates to venerate. The graves were found human artifacts, weapons and hand back to this time period, indicating the existence of the doctrine after death. The doctrine is based on the ancient Egyptians represented the sun and in the doctrine of Re and Horus into the Stative. And the moon, represented in the doctrine of Tut and Konso and the earth are represented in the doctrine of pocket and the sky goddess Nut and Tefnut Shuo god, wind and humidity. And Osiris, Isis, the rulers of the underworld. Most of these gods and the myths around them. And became Amon Ra and after the merger are the doctrine of Amun - Ra king of the gods. 


There was a worship of local gods, especially with all the territory of Egypt. Reverend King was the largest exercise in festivals and rituals were performed by priests in the days to the regular temples. The ordinary people of Aidechlunha only to serve. The Egyptians are interested in life after death and the living graves and Izinunha Ejehzona pictures and furniture. They were mummified after death care (article) Dead. They were put in coffins and charms and amulets on the mummy. They write texts on magic or cloth on the walls of the cemetery and papyrus to be buried with him. The texts of protection and a guide in the underworld. 
In ancient Egypt, the king is the absolute ruler and spiritual leader and the link between the people and the gods. He was supported by the minister and the administrative system and its priests. The king was the commander of the army and his commanders and soldiers of the army of the Egyptians in the age of five and twenty to forty year. The governance of genetically between children in most of the time with the exception of Horemheb (1319 BC. M.), Which was a leader and his successor, Ramses I, who was not of royal blood. Rarely was a woman, except for control of Egypt Hatshepsut, who ruled in the family, 18 after the death of her husband Tuthmosis II in 1479 BC. M. And shared governance with Thutmose III. The Egyptians believed that the status of God, King and King god. After his death lead him to the rituals remain the god. It was usually just the owner and the King of the Two Lands of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt (Delta, the north and the south valley. It was Egypt's economy is people dependent on agriculture along the Nile, which was Imdmsr water and various grain crops, particularly barley, wheat, fruits, vegetables and Mmazm agricultural land was the property of the king and the temples. The sweep means of irrigation after receding flood. and I discovered several mummies reserved were found in all parts of the world in all continents where they follow mummification mummification in all continents. and the word mummy call origin hieroglyphic "mm", which means wax or tar, which was used in the processes of mummification. has been derived from later call Mummy and Aantchert then to the Indo-European languages. and the word mummy apply to all human remains from the tissue soft. and mummification may be present in every continent but the way linked in a manner the ancient Egyptians for this is attributed to them. It was the first study of the mummies were in the 19 century. and not Egyptian mummies just rolls of linen cloth is damaged by the dead bodies only. mode, but the existence of permanent homes for life. and this is how fraudulent the death.

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